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References

During the development of the first edition of Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals (FGTC, 1991), a search and review of the literature was conducted by the National Agricultural Library (Washington, D.C.) and by members of the committee in an attempt to collect and evaluate previously published terms and their various definitions. As the second edition was completed, additional references were included. While by no means all-inclusive, this collection of references is perhaps one of the more exhaustive listings currently available and would be of use to anyone wishing to review this subject.

Definitions of terms were referenced if they were used verbatim as they appeared in the original reference. All other definitions have been developed or revised by the first and second Forage and Grazing Terminology Committees. In certain cases, a reference was included to provide the reader with a source of additional information.

  • Afrc (Agricultural and Food Research Council) (1990) AFRC Technical Committee on responses to nutrients Report No 5. Nutrient requirements of ruminant animals: energy. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, 60, 729804.
  • Allen V.G. (1991) Terminology for grazing animals. Proceedings of Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference. In F.T. McCollum and M.B. Judkins (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd Grazing Livestock Nutrition Conference, 2–3 August, 1991, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, pp. 103110. Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Stillwater.
  • Baker R.D. (1982) Estimating herbage intake from animal performance. In: Leaver J. D. (ed.) Herbage intake handbook, pp. 7793. Hurley, Berks, UK: The British Grassland Society.
  • Baker R.D. (2004) Estimating herbage intake from animal performance. In: Penning P.D. (ed.) Herbage intake handbook, 2nd edn, p. 2. Reading, UK: The British Grassland Society.
  • Barnes R.F. (1981) The role of forage in the United States. In: Wheeler J.L. and Mochrie R.D. (eds) Forage evaluation: concepts and techniques, Proceedings of a workshop Forage evaluation and utilization – an appraisal of concepts and techniques, 27–31 October 1980, pp. 23. Armidale, New South Wales, Australia. 27–31. Netley, Australia: Griffin Press Limited for American Forage and Grassland Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO).
  • Barnes R.F., Nelson C.J., Moore K.J. and Collins M. (eds) (2007) Forages: the science of grassland agriculture. Glossary , 6th edn. Vol II. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing Professional.
  • Berretta E.J. and Do NASCIMENTO D. Jr (1991) Glosario estructurado de términos sobre pasturas y producción animal. (Structured glossary of terms about grassland and animal production). Montevideo, Uruguay: IICA-PROCISUR. (Diálogo; 31).
  • Blaser R.E., Hammes R.C. Jr, Fontenot J.P., Bryant H.T., Polan C.E., Wolf D.D., Mcclaugherty F.S., Kline R.G. and Moore J.S. (1986) Forage-animal management systems. Bulletin 86-7. Blacksburg, Virginia, USA: Virginia Agricultural Experimental Station.
  • Booysen D.V. (1967) Grazing and grazing management terminology in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 2, 4557.
  • Box T.W. and Hardesty L.H. (1984) Coming of age in range management. Rangelands, 6, 195198.
  • Brink V.C. (1982) What is grassland? In: Nicholson A.C., McLean A. and Baker T.E. (eds) Proceedings of Symposium on Grassland ecology and classification, pp. 2125. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: British Columbia Ministry of Forests.
  • Brody S. (1945) Bioenergetics and growth, Ch 13. New York, New York, USA: Reinhold Book Corporation.
  • Clements R.J. (1989) Rates of destruction of growing points of pasture legumes by grazing cattle. In: Proceedings of XVI International Grassland Congress, Nice, France 4–11 Oct. 1989, p. 1027. Versailles, France: Association Française pour la Production Fourragère.
  • Csiro (2007) Nutrient requirements of domesticated ruminants. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
  • Danckwertz J.E. (1981) A technique to assess the grazing capacity of sweetveld with particular reference to the false thornveld areas of the Ciskei . M. Sc. (Agriculture) thesis, University of Natal, South Africa.
  • De Bonneval L. (1993) Systèmes agraires, Systèmes de production. Vocabulaire français-anglais avec index anglais (Agricultural systems. Production systems. French-English Dictionary with English index). Paris, France: INRA.
  • Editorial (Agroforestry Systems) (1982) What is agroforestry? Agroforestry Systems, 1, 712.
  • Edwards P.J. (1973) Definitions of some pasture terms. Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 8, 133135.
  • Fao 2010 Tropical Livestock Units . (Date of access: 2 December 2010).http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/lead/toolbox/Mixed1/TLU.htm
  • Fao (1965) Glossary of pasture and fodder terms. Rome, Italy: FAO.
  • Fgtc (The Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee) (1991) Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals. Blacksburg, Virginia, USA: Pocahontas Press, Inc., or Journal of Production Agriculture 5, 191201.
  • Grings E.E., Heitschmidt R.K., Short R.E. and Haferkamp M.R. (2002) Intensive-early stocking for yearling cattle in the northern Great Plains. Journal of Range Management, 55, 135138.
  • Heady H.F. (1970) Grazing systems: terms and definitions. Journal of Range Management, 23, 5961.
  • Heath M.E., Barnes R.F. and Metcalfe D.S. (1985) Forages, the science of grassland agriculture, 4th edn. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press.
  • Helms J.A. (1998) The dictionary of forestry. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: Society of American Foresters.
  • Hinnant R.T. (1994) What is an ‘Animal-Unit? A time to conform. Rangelands, 16, 3335.
  • Hodgson J. (1979) Nomenclature and definitions in grazing studies. Grass and Forage Science, 34, 1118.
  • Holechek J.L., Gomes H., Molinar F., Galt D. and Valdez R. (2000) Short-duration grazing: the facts in 1999. Rangelands, 21, 1822.
  • Hughes J.G. and O’ Connor K. F. (1976) Objectives, concepts and principles in grazing management. Tussock Grasslands and Mountain Lands Institute Review, 32, 515.
  • Ibraham K. (1975) Glossary of terms in pasture and range survey research, ecology and management. Rome, Italy: FAO.
  • Inra (1998) Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins (Feeding of cattle, sheep and goats). Paris, France: INRA.
  • Joint Committee of the American Society of Range Management and the Agricultural Board of the National Academy OF Sciences, Subcommittee on Range Research Methods. (1962) Basic problems and techniques in range research. Publ. No. 890. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council.
  • Kellner O. (1912) Die Ernahrung der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztiere (The nutrition of livestock). Berlin: Paul Parey.
  • Kilgour R. and Dalton C. (1984) Livestock behaviour . A practical guide. London, UK: Granada Publishing Ltd.
  • Kothmann M.M. (1974) Grazing management terminology. Journal of Range Management, 27, 326327.
  • Kothmann M.M. (2009) Grazing methods: a viewpoint. Rangelands, 31, 510.
  • Lacey J.R. and Van Poollen H.W. (1979) Grazing system identification. Journal of Range Management, 32, 3839.
  • Lewis C.E. (1988) Multiple land use with grass and trees: concept and practice. In: Proceedings of 1988 Forage and Grassland Conference, 11–14 April, Baton Rouge, Louisiana , pp. 282293. Belleville, Pennsylvania, USA: American Forage and Grassland Council.
  • Lewis C.E. and Pearson H.A. (1987) Agroforestry using tame pastures under planted pines in the Southeastern United States. In: Gholz H. L. (ed.) Agroforestry: realities, possibilities and potentials, pp. 195212. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  • Maff (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) (1981) Definitions of terms used in agricultural business management. London, UK: HMSO.
  • Marten G.C. (1988) Intensive grazing of cool season forages. In: Proceedings of 1988 Forage and Grassland Conference, 11–14 April, 1988, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, pp. 305318. Belleville, Pennsylvania, USA: American Forage and Grassland Council.
  • Mccartor M.M. and Rouquette F.M. Jr (1977) Grazing pressures and animal performance from pearl millet. Agronomy Journal, 69, 983987.
  • Meissner H.H. (1982) Beef cattle C.3 – Classification of farm and game animals to predict carrying capacity. Farming in South Africa 1–3.
  • Minson D.J. and Whiteman P.C. (1989) A standard livestock unit (SLU) for defining stocking rate in grazing studies. In: Proceedings. XVI International Grassland Congress, Nice, France, 4–11 Oct. 1989, p. 1117. Versailles, France: Association Française pour la Production Fourragère.
  • Moller I.D., Andersen P.E., Hvelsplund T., Madsen J. and Thomsen K.V. (1983) En ny beregningsmetode for fodermidlernes energiverde til kvaeg (FEk). [A new method of calculating the energy value of feedstuffs for ruminants]. Bereting fru Stakens Husdfyrbrugsforag No. 5. Copenhagen, Denmark: Landhusholdningsselskaset.
  • Moore R. M. (ed.) (1970) Australian grasslands. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian National University Press.
  • Moore J.E. and Undersander D.J. (2002) Relative forage quality: an alternative to relative feed value and quality index. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Nutrition Conference.
  • Mott G.O. (1960) Grazing pressure and the measurement of pasture production. In: Skidmore C. L., Boyle P.J and Raymond L.W. (eds) Proceedings 8th International Grassland Congress, Reading, UK, pp. 606611. Oxford, UK: Alden Press.
  • Mott G.O. (1973) Evaluating forage production. In: Heath M.E., Metcalfe D. S. and Barnes R.F. (eds) Forages: the science of grassland agriculture, 3rd edn, pp. 126135. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press.
  • Mott G.O. and Lucas H.L. (1952) The design, conduct, and interpretation of grazing trials on cultivated and improved pastures. In: Wagner R.E., Myers W.M., Gaines S.H. and Lucas H.L. (eds) Proceedings 6th International Grassland Congress, Pennsylvania State College, Pa., 17–23 August 1952, pp. 13801385. Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania State College.
  • Nicol A. M. (ed.) (1987) Feeding livestock on pasture. In: Occasional Publication No. 10, New Zealand Society of Animal Production, pp. 144155. Christchurch, New Zealand: Bascands Commercial Print Ltd.
  • NRC (1981) Nutritional energetics of domestic animals and glossary of energy terms, 2nd edn. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (1984) Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 6th edn. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (1985) Nutrient requirements of sheep, 6th edn. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (1996) Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 7th edn. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (2000) Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 7th edn. Update 2000. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (2001) Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th edn. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Nrc (2007) Nutrient requirements of small ruminants, sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids. Washington, D.C., USA: National Academy Press.
  • Provenza F.D. (2003) Foraging behaviour: managing to survive in a world of change, pp. 1519. Logan, Utah, USA: USDA-NRCS; Utah State University; Utah Agricultural Experimental Station.
  • Rohweder D.A., Barnes R.F. and Jorgensen N. (1978) Proposed hay grading standards based on laboratory analyses for evaluating quality. Journal of Animal Science, 47, 747759.
  • Rouquette F.M. Jr. (1988) Intensive grazing of warm-season grasses in humid areas. In: Proceedings 1988 Forage and Grassland Conference, 11–14 April, 1988, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, pp. 319333. Belleville, Pennsylvania, USA: American Forage and Grassland Council.
  • Sac (2001) The farm management handbook 2001/2, p. 142. Edinburgh, UK: SAC.
  • Savory A. (1988) Holistic resource management, pp. 509511. Covelo, California, USA: Island Press.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. (1985a) The animal-unit and animal-unit-equivalent concepts in range science. Journal of Range Management, 38, 346349.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. (1985b) The relationship of stocking intensity and stocking pressure to other stocking variables. Journal of Range Management, 38, 558559.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. (1990) Concepts of carrying capacity and substitution rations: a systems viewpoint. Journal of Range Management, 43, 553555.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. (2004) Viewpoint: Entropy, concept design, and animal-unit equivalence in range management science. Journal of Range Management, 57, 113116.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. and Kothmann M.M. (1982) A dynamic approach to grazing management terminology. Journal of Range Management, 35, 262264.
  • Scarnecchia D.L. and Kothmann M.M. (1983) A mathematically and conceptually united approach to grazing management terminology. In: Proceedings. XIV International Grassland Congress, Lexington, Ky, 15–24 June, 1981, pp. 522525. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press.
  • Smart A.J., Derner J.D., Hendrickson J.R., Gillen R.L., Dunn B.H., Mousel E.M., Johnson P.S., Gates R.N., Sedivec K.K., Harmoney K.R., Volesky J.D. and Olson K.C. (2010) Effects of grazing pressure on efficiency of grazing on North American Great Plains rangelands. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 63, 397406.
  • Smith E.F. and Owensby C.E. (1978) Intensive-early stocking and season-long stocking of Kansas Flint Hills range. Journal of Range Management, 31, 1417.
  • Smith B., Leung P. and Love G. (1986) Intensive grazing management: forage, animals, men, profits. Kamuela, Hawaii, USA: The Graziers Hui.
  • Society for Range Management (1989) A glossary of terms used in range management , 3rd edn. Glossary Revision Special Committee, Publications Committee. Peter W. Jacoby, Chairman. Society for Range Management. Denver, Colorado, USA: Edison Press.
  • Sollenberger L.E., Moore J.E., Allen V.G. and Pedreira C.G.S. (2005) Reporting forage allowance in grazing experiments: an alternative approach. Crop Science, 45, 896900.
  • Suttie J.M., , Reynolds S.G. and Batello C. (eds) (2005) Grasslands of the world. Rome, Italy: FAO.
  • Thomas H. (1980) Terminology and definitions in studies of grassland plants. Grass and Forage Science, 35, 1323.
  • Timberlake J. and Van Der Poel P. (1979) Glossary of terms used in range ecology, soil conservation, soil science and land use planning. Gaborone, Republic of Botswana: Division of Land Utilization, Department of Agriculture Field Services.
  • Trollope W.S.W., Trollope L.A. and Bosch O.J.H. (1990) Veld and pasture management terminology in southern Africa. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa, 7, 5261.
  • Undersander D. and Moore J.E. (2004) Relative forage quality (RFQ) Indexing legumes and grasses for forage quality . http://www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/pubs/rfq.htm (Accessed 2 December 2010).
  • Vallentine J.F. (1971) Planning range improvements , pp. 120. Range development and improvements, pp. 1–20. Provo, Utah, USA: Brigham Young University Press.
  • Vallentine J.F. (1990) Grazing management, pp. 456473. San Diego, California, USA: Academic Press.
  • Van Es A.J.H. (1998) Feed evaluation for ruminants. The system in use from May 1997 onwards in the Netherlands. Livestock Production Science, 5, 331345.
  • Van Soest P.J. (1963) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 46, 829835.
  • Van Soest P.J. (1982) Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Corvallis, Oregon, USA: O & B Books, Inc.
  • Van Soest P.J. and Wine R.H. (1967) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 50, 5055.
  • Volesky J.D. (1990) Frontal grazing: forage harvesting of the future? Rangelands, 12, 177181.
  • Volesky J.D., Mowray D.P. and Achaval F. (1990) Frontal grazing: A new method of forage harvesting. In: Proceedings of Forage and Grassland Conference, 6–9 June, 1990, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, pp. 142146. Georgetown, Texas, USA: American Forage and Grassland Council.
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  • Wedin W.F. (1986) Pasture. In: The Encyclopedia Americana, International edition. Vol. 21, p. 523. Danbury, Connecticut, USA: Grolier, Inc.
  • Williams O.B. (1981) Evolution of grazing systems. In: Morley F.H.W. (ed.) Grazing animals, World Animal Science B 1, pp. 1–12. New York, New York, USA: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.