Intracranial bleeding in haemophilia beyond the neonatal period – the role of CT imaging in suspected intracranial bleeding

Authors


Manuel D. Carcao, MD, Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 1X8.
Tel.: 416-813-8886; fax: 416-813-5327;
e-mail: manuel.carcao@sickkids.ca

Abstract

Summary.  We conducted a review of a single institutional experience of patients with haemophilia presenting with suspected intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) who underwent computed tomographic (CT) neuro-imaging. We found that over a 9-year period (1996–2004) 43 patients with haemophilia presented 73 times with suspected ICH: 10 presented multiple times (range: 2–9 times). The median age at presentation was 3.5 years (range: 0.5–17). Preceding trauma occurred in most (62/73; 85%) episodes. ICH was confirmed in 11 of the 73 (16%) episodes in eight patients. Patients with severe haemophilia accounted for a disproportionate number of episodes of suspected (60/73; 82%) and of confirmed ICH (10/11; 91%). All ICH occurred in patients not on prophylaxis; five occurred in three inhibitor-positive patients. Altered consciousness at presentation was present in 10/11 (91%) cases of confirmed ICH but only in 5/62 (8%) (ICH-negative) episodes. The positive and negative predictive values of altered consciousness to predict/rule out an ICH was 67% and 98%, respectively. The following were associated with an increased risk of presenting with suspected ICH and of having a confirmed ICH: (i) having severe haemophilia; (ii) not being on prophylaxis; (iii) having an inhibitor; and (iv) presenting with an altered level of consciousness. Patients without any of these features may not need to undergo CT imaging when presenting with suspected ICH. Ideally a prospective study to evaluate this hypothesis should be conducted.

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