Summary. The immune response to factor VIII and the development of inhibitory antibodies is a complex multi-factorial process involving a variety of immune regulatory genes and cells, several of which have the potential to determine risk. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved will increase the likelihood of development of new therapeutic options for patients with hemophilia. This review summarizes genetic and non-genetic risk factors currently under evaluation, and the potential modulative effect of the von Willebrand factor on factor VIII immuno- and antigenicity. In addition, the role of T-regulatory cells in the pathogenicity of inhibitors will be discussed.