Factor XIII deficiency


Loan Hsieh, Division of Hematology, Children’s Hospital of Orange County, 455 S. Main St, Orange, CA 92868, USA.
Tel.: +1 714 532 8744; fax: +1 714 532 8771;
e-mail: djn0@choc.org (or) lhsieh@choc.org


Summary.  Inherited factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that can present with umbilical bleeding during the neonatal period, delayed soft tissue bruising, mucosal bleeding and life-threatening intracranial haemorrhage. FXIII deficiency has also been associated with poor wound healing and recurrent miscarriages. FXIII plays an integral role in haemostasis by catalysing the cross-linking of fibrin, platelet membrane and matrix proteins throughout thrombus formation, thus stabilizing the blood clot. The molecular basis of FXIII deficiency is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, which contributes to the different clinical manifestations of the disease. There have been more than 60 FXIII mutations identified in the current literature. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms have been described, some of which have been shown to affect FXIII activity, contributing further to the heterogeneity in patient presentation and severity of clinical symptoms. Although there is a lifelong risk of bleeding, the prognosis is excellent when current prophylactic treatment is available using cryoprecipitate or plasma-derived FXIII concentrate.