Summary. A 22-year-old male with severe haemophilia A and high responding factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitor underwent sibling haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in an attempt to eradicate the inhibitor. A reduced intensity conditioning regimen was followed by bone marrow infusion and continuous FVIII administration during immune reconstitution. Although substantial levels of FVIII:C (>100 IU dL−1) were maintained initially, at day +23 inhibitor titres rose, indicating boosting of recipient memory repertoire, despite complete donor chimerism. On day +46, he developed Klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia and died. This case shows that, despite very successful transplantation tolerance, the procedure failed to control long-term memory effector immune cells.