Summary. With the advent of modern factor replacement therapy the most important remaining obstacle to successful treatment in haemophilia A is the development of inhibitory antibodies against Facto VIII (FVIII). This retrospective case control study examined genetic variables and early treatment patterns in severe haemophilia A patients who subsequently developed clinically significant inhibitors to FVIII compared with matched controls who did not. Seventy eight inhibitor patients were identified from 13 UK centers over 25 years (1982-2007). For each case an age matched control was selected. Data on potential genetic and treatment related risk factors were collected for cases and controls. Treatment related data was collected for the first 50 exposure days (EDs) for controls or up to inhibitor development for cases. Risk factors were compared for significance by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of the genetic risk factors, major defects in the FVIII gene and non-caucasian ethnicity were each responsible for approximately 5-fold increases in inhibitor risk. When treatment related variables are considered, high intensity treatment increased inhibitor risk around 2.5 fold whether represented by the presence of peak treatment moments or by high overall treatment frequency. This finding was significant regardless of the timing of the high intensity treatment. Periods of intense treatment associated with surgery for porta-cath insertion were however not found to be associated with increased inhibitor risk. No association was shown between inhibitor development and age at first FVIII exposure, type of FVIII product, or the use of regular prophylaxis. This study confirms treatment-related factors as important risks for inhibitor development in Haemophilia A.