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Protein C, protein S and von Willebrand factor levels correlate with bleeding symptoms: a population-based study

Authors


Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Department of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Rama IV Rd, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Tel.: +662 256 4564; fax: +662 253 9466;
e-mail: rojnuckarinp@gmail.com

Abstract

Summary.  Although natural anticoagulant deficiencies are the established causes of thrombosis, their roles in bleeding are not fully studied. The objective is to correlate haemostatic factors with haemorrhagic symptoms quantified by a standardized questionnaire. Adult subjects were recruited from Bangkok and nearby provinces as part of routine health surveys/checkups. The validated MCMDM-1VWD form was used to assess their bleeding symptoms. At the same time, von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity, free protein S levels and protein C activity were measured. There were 5196 individuals. The mean age was 44.3 years (range 15–99) and 41% were male subjects. The mean bleeding score was −0.28 and 95% of subjects had scores between −2 and +2. The scores were lower in female subjects than in male subjects (−0.35 vs. −0.16, < 0.001). Bleeding scores correlated negatively with age, VWF and protein C activities (Spearman’s ρ−0.258, −0.091 and −0.098, respectively, all < 0.001), but did not significantly correlate with protein S levels. Using multivariate analysis, female gender, VWF below 100 IU dL−1, protein C below 100 IU dL−1 and protein S over 150 IU dL−1 significantly related to high (≥3) bleeding scores (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 1.83, 1.56 and 2.84, = 0.001, 0.001, 0.039 and 0.017, respectively). These findings may suggest interacting roles of VWF and natural anticoagulants in modifying bleeding symptoms.

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