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Factor X deficiency and pregnancy: preconception counselling and therapeutic options

Authors


Danielle Nance, MD, Fellow, Hemophilia Treatment Center, Puget Sound Blood Center/Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, University of Washington, 921 Terry Avenue, Seattle, WA 98102, USA.
Tel.: +206 292 2312; fax: +206 292 4094;
e-mail: daniellenance.md@gmail.com

Abstract

Summary.  Women with factor X deficiency (FXD) who want to become pregnant face uncertain risks to themselves and to an unborn infant from haemorrhagic complications during pregnancy and at parturition. Women with FXD may also experience difficulty achieving pregnancy secondary to haemorrhagic symptoms of the reproductive organs. Case reports describe differences in bleeding phenotypes and pregnancy outcomes that are not easily correlated with prepregnancy bleeding symptoms or factor X levels. The aim of this article is to identify factors for consideration and information to assist the physician in counselling women with FXD who want to become pregnant, and to offer guidelines for management where appropriate. We identified cases of pregnancy among women with FXD and their outcomes from the literature; 15 women with 24 pregnancies were identified and 18 were successful. The women in this small cohort did not have an increased rate of spontaneous abortion, (8.3% vs. 13.5% in the general US population) but did have a 2.5-fold increased risk of preterm labour (37.5% vs. 12.2% in the general US population). The role of prophylaxis to control reproductive haemorrhagic symptoms, including haemorrhagic complications of pregnancy has not yet been defined, but use of prophylaxis may allow more women to be able to attempt pregnancy. Women who had access to a tertiary care centre with a multidisciplinary team including an obstetrician with high-risk obstetric training, a haematologist, a perinatologist, and access to a reference laboratory and blood bank were able in most cases to successfully deliver healthy, term infants.

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