Correlating clinical manifestations with factor levels in rare bleeding disorders: a report from Southern India


Auro Viswabandya, MD, DM, Department of Haematology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu–632004, India.
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Summary.  Data on the clinical manifestations of patients with clotting factor defects other than Haemophilia A, B and von Willebrand disease are limited because of their rarity. Due to their autosomal recessive nature of inheritance, these diseases are more common in areas where there is higher prevalence of consanguinity. There is no previous large series reported from southern India where consanguinity is common. Our aim was to analyze clinical manifestations of patients with rare bleeding disorders and correlate their bleeding symptoms with corresponding factor level. Data were collected in a standardized format from our centre over three decades on 281 patients who were diagnosed with rare bleeding disorders (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V (FV), FVII, FX, FXI, FXIII and combined FV or FVIII deficiency). Patients with liver dysfunction or those on medications which can affect factor level were excluded. All patients with <50% factor levels were included in this analysis. Patients were analysed for their salient clinical manifestations and it was correlated with their factor levels. The data shows that FXIII deficiency is the commonest and FXI deficiency is the rarest in Southern India. There was no significant difference in bleeding symptoms among those who were < or >1% factor coagulant activities among all disorders, except for few symptoms in FVII and FX deficiency. An international collaborative study is essential to find out the best way of classifying severity in patients with rare bleeding disorders.