The Pain Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ), adapted from an earlier version by Philips and Hunter,1 wasadministered to 165 chronic headache patients (migraine, tension, and mixed migraine and tension) duringa pre-treatment assessment, and asked for a retrospective report of the frequency of engaging in variouspain-related behaviors during periods of headache. An exploratory factor analysis identified four factors:avoidance (Factor 1), complaint (Factor 2), non-verbal complaint (Factor 3), and medication consumption(Factor 4). Additionally, the relationship between behavioral factors and a prospective index of headacheactivity was calculated. In all cases, for the entire sample, and for each diagnostic group, the correlationswere negative, indicating some lack of congruence between a measure of pain and pain behaviors. Finally,the relationship between indices of psychopathology and pain behaviors was assessed utilizing the BeckDepression Inventory (BDI), and the Trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Scores on theBDI were significantly positively correlated with Factors 1, 3 and 4. Scores on the STAI were significantlypositively correlated with all four of the behavioral factors. These results indicate that the pain experiencemay be mediated by factors other than the subjective experience of pain itself.