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Expression of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), gelatinase B (MMP-9), and plasminogen activator system during fetal calvarial development


Dr Petra Zeitler, Department of Pediatrics, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider Str. 2, D-97080 Würzburg, Germany.


Aims:  To investigate whether degrading proteases can be found in patent calvarial sutures. Sutural growth and fusion means replacement of the sutural connective tissue, rich in fibronectin and collagen type V, by expanding calvarial bone. Proliferation of one tissue into the border area of another implies the presence of enzymes able to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). An important family of proteases is the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as is the plasminogen/plasmin system.

Methods and results:  Expression of two MMPs with substrate specifity for fibronectin and collagen type V and of the plasminogen activator system was studied by immunohistochemistry in samples of human fetal calvariae (age range weeks 19–35 of gestation). In all cases, intense staining for MMPs, urokinase, and urokinase receptor was found in the sutural connective tissue and along the outer and inner borders of calvarial bone.

Conclusions:  Our findings suggest that degradation of sutural connective tissue takes place during sutural growth. This might facilitate proliferation of calvarial bone. Recently, it was shown that an important regulatory mechanism of sutural growth is apoptosis of osteoblasts in the osteogenic front. Intact fibronectin is known to prevent apoptosis of proliferating osteoblasts while fibronectin degradation induces their apoptosis.