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Keywords:

  • c-kit;
  • CD117;
  • gastrointestinal stromal tumour;
  • KIT;
  • PDGFRA

Recently, there has been intense interest in the study of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST); one might call it a virtual GIST revolution. This is due largely to the realization that most GISTs express KIT and harbour activating c-KIT (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) receptor tyrosine kinase mutations that can be targeted by small molecule pharmacological inhibitors. Pathologists have benefited greatly from this revolution, mainly in the form of an improved ability to classify GISTs and, even more recently, in understanding the molecular underpinnings that underlie many fascinating clinical and pathological correlations. It is the purpose of this review to summarize recent developments in GIST classification and the molecular pathogenesis of GIST.