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Keywords:

  • asbestos;
  • calretinin;
  • CEA;
  • D2-40;
  • differential diagnosis;
  • immunohistochemistry;
  • sarcomatoid carcinoma;
  • sarcomatoid mesothelioma

Aims:  The differential diagnosis of pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) from lung sarcomatoid carcinoma (LSC) invading parietal pleura and chest wall is a challenging issue. The aim of this study was to identify useful antibodies that can be used for the differential diagnosis of pleural SM from LSC.

Methods and results:  Forty-five cases of pleural SM and 27 cases of LSC were immunohistochemically analysed by using 15 commercially available antibodies, including D2-40 and antibodies to calretinin, thrombomodulin, Wilms’ Tumour 1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Napsin A, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, pan-cytokeratin, CAM5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, Ber-EP4, MOC-31, α-smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon and desmin. The results revealed that D2-40 positivity was significantly higher in pleural SM (86.7%) than in LSC (25.9%). The positivity of the adenocarcinoma markers, including CEA, Napsin A, and TTF-1, was low even in LSC.

Conclusions:  Evaluating the positivity and degree of staining of the well-known mesothelial marker D2-40 could be applied to differentiate pleural SM from the sarcomatoid component of LSC, in addition to assessing clinical and radiological information.