• 1
    Hutter H, Dohr G. HLA expression on immature and mature human germ cells. J Reprod Immunol 1998; 38: 10122.
  • 2
    Alexander NJ, Anderson DJ. Immunology of semen. Fertil Steril 1987; 47: 192204.
  • 3
    Kelly RW, Critchley HO. Immunomodulation by human seminal plasma: a benefit for spermatozoon and pathogen? Hum Reprod 1997; 12: 22007.
  • 4
    Beer AE, Billingham RE. Host responses to intra-uterine tissue, cellular and fetal allografts. J Reprod Fert Suppl 1974; 21: 5988.
  • 5
    Robertson SA, Mau VJ, Tremellen KP, Seamark RF. Role of high molecular weight seminal vesicle proteins in eliciting the uterine inflammatory response to semen in mice. J Reprod Fertil 1996; 107: 26577.
  • 6
    Robertson SA, Sharkey DJ, Tremellen KP, Danielsson KG. Semen elicits immunological changes in the human cervix. J Soc Gynecol Invest 2001; 9: 228A.
  • 7
    Tremellen KP, Seamark RF, Robertson SA. Seminal transforming growth factor beta1 stimulates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production and inflammatory cell recruitment in the murine uterus. Biol Reprod 1998; 58: 121725.
  • 8
    Robertson SA, Mayrhofer G, Seamark RF. Uterine epithelial cells synthesize granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 in pregnant and nonpregnant mice. Biol Reprod 1992; 46: 106979.
  • 9
    Sanford TRM, Wood GW. Expression of colony-stimulating factors and inflammatory cytokines in the uterus of CD1 mice during days 1–3 of pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil 1992; 94: 21320.
  • 10
    Robertson SA, Allanson M, Mau VJ. Molecular regulation of uterine leukocyte recruitment during early pregnancy in the mouse. Trophoblast Res 1998; 11: 10120.
  • 11
    McMaster MT, Newton RC, Dey SK, Andrews GK. Activation and distribution of inflammatory cells in the mouse uterus during the preimplantation period. J Immunol 1992; 148: 1699705.
  • 12
    Reid BL. The fate of isotope-labelled uterine spermatozoa in the mouse post coitum. Aust J Zool 1965; 13: 52531.
  • 13
    Weiner HL. Oral tolerance. Immune mechanisms and the generation of Th3-type TGF-beta-secreting regulatory cells. Microbes Infect 2001; 3: 94754.
  • 14
    Robertson SA, Ingman WV, O'Leary S, Sharkey DJ, Tremellen KP. Transforming growth factor beta–a mediator of immune deviation in seminal plasma. J Reprod Immunol 2002; 57: 109.
  • 15
    Robertson SA. Control of the immunological environment of the uterus. Rev Reprod 2000; 5: 16474.
  • 16
    Johansson M, Lycke NY. Immunology of the human genital tract. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2003; 16: 439.
  • 17
    Kapovic M, Rukavina D. Kinetics of lymphoproliferative responses of lymphocytes harvested from the uterine draining lymph nodes during pregnancy in rats. J Reprod Immunol 1991; 20: 93101.
  • 18
    Robertson SA, Mau VJ, Hudson SA, Tremellen KP. Cytokine-leukocyte networks and the establishment of pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 37: 4382.
  • 19
    Tremellen KP, Valbuena D, Landeras J, et al. The effect of intercourse on pregnancy rates during assisted human reproduction. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 26538.
  • 20
    Dekker GA, Robillard PY, Hulsey TC. Immune maladaptation in the etiology of preeclampsia: a review of corroborative epidemiologic studies. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1998; 53: 37782.
  • 21
    Robertson SA, Sharkey DJ. The role of semen in induction of maternal immune tolerance to pregnancy. Semin Immunol 2001; 13: 24354.
  • 22
    Sander B, Andersson J, Andersson U. Assessment of cytokines by immunofluorescence and the paraformaldehyde-saponin precedure. Immunol Rev 1991; 119: 6593.
  • 23
    Carter LL, Swain SL. Single cell analyses of cytokine production. Curr Opin Immunol 1997; 9: 17782.
  • 24
    Johansson M, Ward M, Lycke N. B-cell-deficient mice develop complete immune protection against genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Immunol 1997; 92: 4228.
  • 25
    Rabin H, Hopkins RF, 3rd, Ruscetti FW, Neubauer RH, Brown RL, Kawakami TG. Spontaneous release of a factor with properties of T cell growth factor from a continuous line of primate tumor T cells. J Immunol 1981; 127: 18526.
  • 26
    Hetherington CM, Humber DP. The effect of pregnancy on lymph node weight in the mouse. J Immunogenet 1977; 4: 2716.
  • 27
    Watson JG, Carroll J, Chaykin S. Reproduction in mice: the fate of spermatozoa not involved in fertilization. Gamete Res 1983; 7: 7584.
  • 28
    Koelman CA, Coumans ABC, Nijman HW, Doxiadis IIN, Dekker GA, Claas FHJ. Correlation between oral sex and a low incidence of preeclampsia: a role for soluble HLA in seminal fluid? J Reprod Immunol 2000; 46: 15566.
  • 29
    Johansson M, Lycke N. A unique population of extrathymically derived alpha beta TCR+CD4–CD8– T cells with regulatory functions dominates the mouse female genital tract. J Immunol 2003; 170: 165966.
  • 30
    Croy BA, Chantakru S, Esadeg S, Ashkar AA, Wei Q. Decidual natural killer cells: key regulators of placental development (a review). J Reprod Immunol 2002; 57: 151.
  • 31
    Dang Y, Beckers J, Wang CR, Heyborne KD. Natural killer 1.1 (+) alpha beta t cells in the periimplantation uterus. Immunol 2000; 101: 48491.
  • 32
    Albert ML, Sauter B, Bhardwaj N. Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted CTLs. Nature 1998; 392: 869.
  • 33
    Cottrez F, Groux H. Specialization in tolerance. innate CD(4+) CD(25+) versus acquired TR1 and TH3 regulatory T cells. Transplantation 2004; 77: S1215.
  • 34
    Hudson Keenihan SN, Robertson SA. Diversity in phenotype and steroid hormone dependence in dendritic cells and macrophages in the mouse uterus. Biol Reprod 2004; DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.103.024794.
  • 35
    Heyborne KD, Cranfill RL, Carding SR, Born WK, O'Brien RL. Characterization of gamma delta T lymphocytes at the maternal–fetal interface. J Immunol 1992; 149: 28728.
  • 36
    Arck PC, Ferrick DA, Steele Norwood D, Croitoru K, Clark DA. Murine T cell determination of pregnancy outcome. I. Effects of strain, alpha/beta T cell receptor, gamma/delta T cell receptor, and gamma/delta T cell subsets. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 37: 492502.
  • 37
    Lea RG, Flanders KC, Harley CB, Manuel J, Banwatt D, Clark DA. Release of a transforming growth factor(TGF)-beta 2-related suppressor factor from postimplantation murine decidual tissue can be correlated with the detection of a subpopulation of cells containing RNA for TGF-beta 2. J Immunol 1992; 148: 77887.
  • 38
    Kruse A, Merchant MJ, Hallmann R, Butcher EC. Evidence of specialized leukocyte–vascular homing interactions at the maternal/fetal interface. Eur J Immunol 1999; 29: 111626.
  • 39
    Chantakru S, Miller C, Roach LE, Kuziel WA, Maeda N, Wang WC, Evans SS, Croy BA. Contributions fromself-renewal and trafficking to the uterine NK cell population of early pregnancy. J Immunol 2002; 168: 228.
  • 40
    Dang Y, Heyborne KD. Cutting edge: regulation of uterine NKT cells by a fetal class I molecule other than CD1. J Immunol 2001; 166: 36414.
  • 41
    Brogi A, Presentini R, Moretti E, Strazza M, Piomboni P, Costantino-Ceccarini E. New insights into the interaction between the gp120 and the HIV receptor in human sperm. J Reprod Immunol 1998; 41: 21331.