• 1
    Janeway CA Jr, Medzhitov R. Innate immune recognition. Annu Rev Immunol 2002; 20: 197216
  • 2
    Peiser L, Mukhopadhyay S, Gordon S. Scavenger receptors in innate immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14: 12328.
  • 3
    Martinez-Pomares L, Linehan SA, Taylor PR, Gordon S. Binding properties of the mannose receptor. Immunobiology 2001; 204: 52735.
  • 4
    Herre J, Gordon S, Brown GD. Dectin-1 and its role in the recognition of beta-glucans by macrophages. Mol Immunol 2004; 40: 86976.
  • 5
    Daeron M. Fc receptor biology. Annu Rev Immunol 1997; 15: 20334.
  • 6
    Carroll MC. The role of complement and complement receptors in induction and regulation of immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16: 54568.
  • 7
    Barclay AN. Membrane proteins with immunoglobulin-like domains – a master superfamily of interaction molecules. Semin Immunol 2003; 15: 21523.
  • 8
    Loertscher R, Lavery P. The role of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface proteins in T-cell activation. Transpl Immunol 2002; 9: 936.
  • 9
    Hamm HE. The many faces of G protein signaling. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 669.
  • 10
    Aderem A, Ulevitch RJ. Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response. Nature 2000; 406: 7827.
  • 11
    Beutler B, Du Hoebe K, X Ulevitch RJ. How we detect microbes and respond to them. the Toll-like receptors and their transducers. J Leukoc Biol 2003; 74: 47985.
  • 12
    Underhill DM. Toll-like receptors: networking for success. Eur J Immunol 2003; 33:176775.
  • 13
    Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 2001; 1: 13545.
  • 14
    Sato M, Sano H, Iwaki D et al. Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion are down-regulated by lung collectin surfactant protein A. J Immunol 2003; 171: 41725.
  • 15
    Lien E, Means TK, Heine H et al. Toll-like receptor 4 imparts ligand-specific recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Invest 2000; 105: 497504.
  • 16
    Poltorak A, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Citterio S, Beutler B. Physical contact between lipopolysaccharide and toll-like receptor 4 revealed by genetic complementation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 21637.
  • 17
    Akashi S, Nagai Y, Ogata H et al. Human MD-2 confers on mouse Toll-like receptor 4 species-specific lipopolysaccharide recognition. Int Immunol 2001; 13: 15959.
  • 18
    Viriyakosol S, Tobias PS, Kitchens RL, Kirkland TN. MD-2 binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 3804451.
  • 19
    Hoffmann JA, Reichhart JM. Drosophila innate immunity: an evolutionary perspective. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 1216.
  • 20
    Akira S. Toll-like receptor signaling. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 381058.
  • 21
    Akira S, Yamamoto M, Takeda K. Role of adapters in Toll-like receptor signalling. Biochem Soc Trans 2003; 31: 63742.
  • 22
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Mori K, Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Takeda K, Akira S. Cutting edge: a novel Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter that preferentially activates the IFN-beta promoter in the Toll-like receptor signaling. J Immunol 2002; 169: 666872.
  • 23
    Doyle S, Vaidya S, O'Connell R et al. IRF3 mediates a TLR3/TLR4-specific antiviral gene program. Immunity 2002; 17: 25163.
  • 24
    Girardin SE, Tournebize R, Mavris M et al. CARD4/Nod1 mediates NF-kappaB and JNK activation by invasive Shigella flexneri. EMBO Rep 2001; 2: 73642.
  • 25
    Inohara N, Ogura Y, Chen FF, Muto A, Nunez G. Human Nod1 confers responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 25514.
  • 26
    Triantafilou K, Triantafilou M, Dedrick RL. A CD14-independent LPS receptor cluster. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 33845.
  • 27
    Tsukada J, Waterman WR, Koyama Y, Webb AC, Auron PE. A novel STAT-like factor mediates lipopolysaccharide, interleukin 1 (IL-1), and IL-6 signaling and recognizes a gamma interferon activation site-like element in the IL1B gene. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16: 218394.
  • 28
    Ohmori Y, Hamilton TA. Requirement for STAT1 in LPS-induced gene expression in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 69: 598604.
  • 29
    Ozinsky A, Underhill DM, Fontenot JD, Hajjar AM, Smith KD, Wilson CB, Schroeder L, Aderem A. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 1376671.
  • 30
    Hajjar AM, O'Mahony DS, Ozinsky A, Underhill DM, Aderem A, Klebanoff SJ, Wilson CB. Cutting edge. Functional interactions between toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR1 or TLR6 in response to phenol-soluble modulin. J Immunol 2001; 166: 159.
  • 31
    Fan J, Frey RS, Malik AB. TLR4 signaling induces TLR2 expression in endothelial cells via neutrophil NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest 2003; 112: 123443.
  • 32
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H et al. Essential role for TIRAP in activation of the signalling cascade shared by TLR2 and TLR4. Nature 2002; 420: 3249.
  • 33
    Yamamoto M, Sato S, Hemmi H et al. Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Science 2003; 301: 6403.
  • 34
    Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA Jr. A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 1997; 388: 3947.
  • 35
    Poltorak A, He X, Smirnova I et al. Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science 1998; 282: 20858.
  • 36
    Qureshi ST, Lariviere L, Leveque G, Clermont S, Moore KJ, Gros P, Malo D. Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4). J Exp Med 1999; 189: 61525.
  • 37
    Hoshino K, Takeuchi O, Kawai T, Sanjo H, Ogawa T, Takeda Y, Takeda K, Akira S. Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product. J Immunol 1999; 162: 374952.
  • 38
    Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, Nagai Y, Fukudome K, Miyake K, Kimoto M. MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor-4. J Exp Med 1999; 189:177782.
  • 39
    Ohnishi T, Muroi M, Tanamoto K. N-linked glycosylations at Asn (26) and Asn (114) of human MD-2 are required for toll-like receptor 4-mediated activation of NF-kappaB by lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 2001; 167: 33549.
  • 40
    Schromm AB, Lien E, Henneke P et al. Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line. a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling. J Exp Med 2001; 194: 7988.
  • 41
    Nagai Y, Akashi S, Nagafuku M et al. Essential role of MD-2 in LPS responsiveness and TLR4 distribution. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 66772.
  • 42
    Haziot A, Ferrero E, Kontgen F, Hijiya N, Yamamoto S, Silver J, Stewart CL, Goyert SM. 1996 Resistance to endotoxin shock and reduced dissemination of gram-negative bacteria in CD14-deficient mice. Immunity 2002; 4: 40714.
  • 43
    Tobias PS, Soldau K, Gegner JA, Mintz D, Ulevitch RJ. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein-mediated complexation of lipopolysaccharide with soluble CD14. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 104828.
  • 44
    Perera PY, Mayadas TN, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Zaks-Zilberman M, Goyert SM, Vogel SN. CD11b/CD18 acts in concert with CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 to elicit full lipopolysaccharide and taxol-inducible gene expression. J Immunol 2001; 166: 57481.
  • 45
    Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Marshall AS, Gordon S. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 2003; 197: 111924.
  • 46
    Gantner BN, Simmons RM, Canavera SJ, Akira S, Underhill DM. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Exp Med 2003; 197: 110717.
  • 47
    Brown GD, Gordon S. Immune recognition: a new receptor for beta-glucans. Nature 2001; 413: 367.
  • 48
    Herre J, Marshall AJ, Caron E et al. Dectin-1 utilizes novel mechanisms for yeast phagocytosis in macrophages. Blood 2004 (In press).
  • 49
    Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY. The beta-glucan receptor, dectin-1, is predominantly expressed on the surface of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and neutrophil lineages. J Immunol 2002; 169: 387682.
  • 50
    Takeda K, Kaisho T, Akira S. Toll-like receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 2003; 21: 33576.
  • 51
    Ozinsky A, Underhill DM, Fontenot JD, Hajjar AM, Smith KD, Wilson CB, Schroeder L, Aderem A. The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97:1376671.
  • 52
    Underhill DM, Ozinsky A, Hajjar AM, Stevens A, Wilson CB, Bassetti M, Aderem A. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature 1999; 401: 8115.
  • 53
    Underhill DM. Macrophage recognition of zymosan particles. J Endotoxin Res 2003; 9: 17680.
  • 54
    Romagnani S. The Th1/Th2 paradigm. Immunol Today 1997; 18: 2636.
  • 55
    Trinchieri G. Interleukin-12: a cytokine at the interface of inflammation and immunity. Adv Immunol 1998; 70: 83243.
  • 56
    O'Garra A. Cytokines induce the development of functionally heterogeneous T helper cell subsets. Immunity 1998; 8: 27583.
  • 57
    Sutterwala FS, Noel GJ, Clynes R, Mosser DM. Selective suppression of interleukin-12 induction after macrophage receptor ligation. J Exp Med 1997; 185:197785.
  • 58
    Lucas M, Stuart LM, Savill J, Lacy-Hulbert A. Apoptotic cells and innate immune stimuli combine to regulate macrophage cytokine secretion. J Immunol 2003; 171: 26105.
  • 59
    Brightbill HD, Libraty DH, Krutzik SR et al. Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors. Science 1999; 285: 7326.
  • 60
    Seki E, Tsutsui H, Nakano H et al. Lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-18 secretion from murine Kupffer cells independently of myeloid differentiation factor 88 that is critically involved in induction of production of IL-12 and IL-1beta. J Immunol 2001; 166: 26517.
  • 61
    D'Andrea A, Aste-Amezaga M, Valiante NM, Ma X, Kubin M, Trinchieri G. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits human lymphocyte interferon gamma-production by suppressing natural killer cell stimulatory factor/IL-12 synthesis in accessory cells. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 10418.
  • 62
    D'Andrea A, Ma X, Aste-Amezaga M, Paganin C, Trinchieri G. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 on the production of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: priming for IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 53746.
  • 63
    Gerber JS, Mosser DM. Reversing lipopolysaccharide toxicity by ligating the macrophage Fc gamma receptors. J Immunol 2001; 166: 68618.
  • 64
    Sutterwala FS, Noel GJ, Salgame P, Mosser DM. Reversal of proinflammatory responses by ligating the macrophage Fcgamma receptor type I. J Exp Med 1998; 188: 21722.
  • 65
    Leadbetter EA, Rifkin IR, Hohlbaum AM, Beaudette BC, Shlomchik MJ, Marshak-Rothstein A. Chromatin-IgG complexes activate B cells by dual engagement of IgM and Toll-like receptors. Nature 2002; 416: 6037.
  • 66
    Uronen-Hansson H, Allen J, Osman M, Squires G, Klein N, Callard RE. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are present inside human dendritic cells, associated with microtubules and the Golgi apparatus but are not detectable on the cell surface: integrity of microtubules is required for interleukin-12 production in response to internalized bacteria. Immunology 2004; 111: 1738.
  • 67
    Peiser L, De Winther MP, Makepeace K et al. The class A macrophage scavenger receptor is a major pattern recognition receptor for Neisseria meningitidis which is independent of lipopolysaccharide and not required for secretory responses. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 534654.
  • 68
    Doyle SE, O'Connell RM, Miranda GA et al. Toll-like receptors induce a phagocytic gene program through p38. J Exp Med 2004; 199: 8190.
  • 69
    Tontonoz P, Mangelsdorf DJ. Liver X receptor signaling pathways in cardiovascular disease. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17: 98593.
  • 70
    Castrillo A, Joseph SB, Vaidya SA, Haberland M, Fogelman AM, Cheng G, Tontonoz P. Crosstalk between LXR and toll-like receptor signaling mediates bacterial and viral antagonism of cholesterol metabolism. Mol Cell 2003; 12: 80516.
  • 71
    Fan J, Malik AB. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling augments chemokine-induced neutrophil migration by modulating cell surface expression of chemokine receptors. Nat Med 2003; 9: 31521.
  • 72
    Wald D, Qin J, Zhao Z et al. SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 9207.
  • 73
    Pinhal-Enfield G, Ramanathan M, Hasko G, Vogel SN, Salzman AL, Boons GJ, Leibovich SJ. An angiogenic switch in macrophages involving synergy between Toll-like receptors 2, 4, 7, and 9 and adenosine A (2A) receptors. Am J Pathol 2003; 163: 71121.
  • 74
    Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H et al. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. Science 2004; 303: 15269.