• dendritic cell;
  • macrophage;
  • filarial nematode;
  • inflammation


We have previously shown in an in vitro study that the filarial nematode phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein ES-62 promotes a murine dendritic cell (DC) phenotype that induces T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. We now show that, in addition to directly priming Th2 responses, ES-62 can act to dampen down the pro-inflammatory DC responses elicited by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that murine DCs and macrophages derived ex vivo from bone marrow cells exposed in vivo to ES-62 by release from osmotic pumps are hyporesponsive to subsequent stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. These effects can be largely mimicked by exposure to the PC moiety of ES-62 conjugated to an irrelevant protein. The data we provide are, as far as we aware, the first to show that a defined pathogen product can modulate the developmental pathway of bone marrow cells of the immune system in vivo. Such a finding could have important implications for the use of pathogen products or their derivatives for immunotherapy.