Complement receptors type 1 and 2 (CR1 (CD35)/CR2 (CD21)) are known to enhance the adaptive immune response. In mice, CR1/CR2 are expressed on B cells, follicular dendritic cells, and activated granulocytes. Recently, we showed that a subset of CD44high and CD62Llow T cells also expresses CR1 and CR2. We now report that CR1/CR2 are detectable on both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of T cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria causes polyclonal activation of B cells and stimulation of macrophages and other antigen-presenting cells. We further demonstrate that LPS induced marked up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 on T cells from CR1/CR2 sufficient (Cr+/+), but significantly lower up-regulation on T cells from CR1/CR2 deficient (Cr–/–) mice. These findings point to a novel mechanism by which CR1/CR2 modulates the activation of T cells by LPS.