• 1
    Leung DY, Jain N, Leo HL. New concepts in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15: 6348.
  • 2
    Willemse T. Atopic skin disease: a review and a reconsideration of diagnostic criteria. J Small Anim Pract 1986; 27: 7718.
  • 3
    Griffin CE, Deboer DJ. The ACVD task force on canine atopic dermatitis (XIV): clinical manifestations of canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2001; 81: 25569.
  • 4
    Aioi A, Tonogaito H, Suto H et al. Impairment of skin barrier function in NC/Nga Tnd mice as a possible model for atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 2001; 144: 1218.
  • 5
    Kimata M, Abe T, Yamaguchi I, Mito K, Tsunematsu M, Inagaki N, Nagai H. Prednisolone inhibits an IgE-mediated late-phase allergic cutaneous reaction by interfering with the activation of mast cells in mice. Pharmacology 2001; 62: 1722.
  • 6
    De Andres B, Rakasz E, Hagen M et al. Lack of Fc-epsilon receptors on murine eosinophils: implications for the functional significance of elevated IgE and eosinophils in parasitic infections. Blood 1997; 89: 382636.
  • 7
    Hayashi S, Matsuda H, Okumura K, Ra C. Mouse Langerhans cells do not express the high-affinity receptor for IgE. Arch Dermatol Res 1999; 291: 2413.
  • 8
    Tan PS, Gavin AL, Barnes N et al. Unique monoclonal antibodies define expression of Fc gamma RI on macrophages and mast cell lines and demonstrate heterogeneity among subcutaneous and other dendritic cells. J Immunol 2003; 170: 254956.
  • 9
    Strait RT, Morris SC, Yang M, Qu XW, Finkelman FD. Pathways of anaphylaxis in the mouse. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109: 65868.
  • 10
    Miyajima I, Dombrowicz D, Martin TR, Ravetch JV, Kinet JP, Galli SJ. Systemic anaphylaxis in the mouse can be mediated largely through IgG1 and Fc gammaRIII. Assessment of the cardiopulmonary changes, mast cell degranulation, and death associated with active or IgE- or IgG1-dependent passive anaphylaxis. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 90114.
  • 11
    Olivry T, Moore PF, Affolter VK, Naydan DK. Langerhans cell hyperplasia and IgE expression in canine atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol Res 1996; 288: 57985.
  • 12
    Jackson HA, Orton SM, Hammerberg B. IgE is present on peripheral blood monocytes and B cells in normal dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis but there is no correlation with serum IgE concentrations. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2002; 85: 22532.
  • 13
    Olivry T, Murphy KM, Dunston SM, Moore PF. Characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate during IgE-mediated late-phase reactions in the skin of normal and atopic dogs. Vet Dermatol 2001; 12: 4958.
  • 14
    Rivierre C, Dunston SM, Olivry T. Effects of a 1 per cent hydrocortisone conditioner on the prevention of immediate and late phase reactions in canine skin. Vet Rec 2000; 147: 73942.
  • 15
    Ying S, Robinson DS, Meng Q et al. C-C chemokines in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous responses in atopic subjects: association of eotaxin with early 6-hour eosinophils, and of eotaxin-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-4 with the later 24-hour tissue eosinophilia, and relationship to basophils and other C-C chemokines (Monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 and RANTES). J Immunol 1999; 163: 397684.
  • 16
    Zweiman B, Haralabatos IC, Pham NC, David M, Von Allmen C. Sequential patterns of inflammatory events during developing and expressed skin late-phase reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 105: 77681.
  • 17
    Roquet A, Raud J, Hallden G et al. Effects of loratadine on anti-IgE-induced inflammation, histamine release, and leukocyte recruitment in skin of atopics. Allergy 1995; 50: 41420.
  • 18
    Gronneberg R, Raud J. Effects of local treatment with salmeterol and terbutaline on anti-IgE-induced wheal, flare, and late induration in human skin. Allergy 1996; 51: 68592.
  • 19
    Gronneberg R, Zetterstrom O. Inhibition of anti-IgE induced skin response in normals by formoterol, a new beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, and terbutaline. 1. Dose–response relation and duration of effect on the early wheal and flare response. Allergy 1990; 45: 3349.
  • 20
    Gronneberg R, Zetterstrom O. Inhibition of anti-IgE induced skin response in normals by formoterol, a new beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, and terbutaline. 2. Effect on the late phase reaction. Allergy 1990; 45: 3406.
  • 21
    Hammerberg B, Olivry T, Orton SM. Skin mast cell histamine release following stem cell factor and high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor cross-linking in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Vet Dermatol 2001; 12: 33946.
  • 22
    Luna LG. Methods for cytoplasmic granules: Luna's method for erythrocytes and eosinophil granules. In: Luna, LG, ed. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968: 11112.
  • 23
    Sheehan DC, Hrapchak BB. Toluidine Blue Stain Theory and Practice of Histotechnology. St Louis: Mosby, 1980: 16970.
  • 24
    Preece A. Toluidine Blue Stain, Method Two a Manual for Histologic Technicians. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972: 266.
  • 25
    Affolter VK, Moore PF. Localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma of dendritic cell origin in dogs. Vet Pathol 2002; 39: 7483.
  • 26
    Vaughan WT. A study of eczema as an allergic phenomenon. South Med J 1924; 17: 74954.
  • 27
    Finkelman FD, Rothenberg ME, Brandt EB, Morris SC, Strait RT. Molecular mechanisms of anaphylaxis: lessons from studies with murine models. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 44957.
  • 28
    Jurgens M, Wollenberg A, Hanau D, De La Salle H, Bieber T. Activation of human epidermal Langerhans cells by engagement of the high affinity receptor for IgE, Fc epsilon RI. J Immunol 1995; 155: 51849.
  • 29
    Kraft S, Novak N, Katoh N, Bieber T, Rupec RA. Aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor Fc (epsilon) RI on human monocytes and dendritic cells induces NF-kappaB activation. J Invest Dermatol 2002; 118: 8307.
  • 30
    Novak N, Bieber T. The role of dendritic cell subtypes in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53: S1716.
  • 31
    Reich K, Heine A, Hugo S et al. Engagement of the Fc epsilon RI stimulates the production of IL-16 in Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells. J Immunol 2001; 167: 63219.
  • 32
    Mudde GC, Van Reijsen FC, Boland GJ, De Gast GC, Bruijnzeel PLB, Bruijnzeel-Kommen CAFM. Allergen presentation by epidermal Langerhans' cells from patients with atopic dermatitis is mediated by IgE. Immunology 1990; 69: 33541.
  • 33
    Dombrowicz D, Flamand V, Miyajima I, Ravetch JV, Galli SJ, Kinet JP. Absence of Fc epsilonRI alpha chain results in upregulation of Fc gammaRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Evidence of competition between Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII for limiting amounts of FcR beta and gamma chains. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 91525.
  • 34
    DeBoer DJ, Cooley AJ. Use of induced cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of triamcinolone topical solution in three dogs. Vet Dermatol 2000; 11: 2533.
  • 35
    Langeveld-Wildschut EG, Thepen T, Bihari IC, VanReijsen FC, DeVries IJM, Bruijnzeel PLB, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CAFM. Evaluation of the atopy patch test and the cutaneous late-phase reaction as relevant models for the study of allergic inflammation in patients with atopic eczema. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1996; 98: 101927.
  • 36
    Gronneberg R, Van Hage-Hamsten M, Hallden G, Hed J, Raud J. Effects of salmeterol and terbutaline on IgE-mediated dermal reactions and inflammatory events in skin chambers in atopic patients. Allergy 1996; 51: 6406.
  • 37
    Raud J, Hallden G, Roquet A et al. Anti-IgE-induced accumulation of leukocytes, mediators, and albumin in skin chamber fluid from healthy and atopic subjects. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1996; 97: 115163.
  • 38
    Hammarlund A, Pipkorn U, Enerback L. Mast cells, tissue histamine and eosinophils in early- and late-phase skin reactions: effects of a single dose of prednisolone. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1990; 93: 1717.
  • 39
    Taborda-Barata L, Jacobson M, Walker S et al. Effect of cetirizine and prednisolone on cellular infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression during allergen-induced late cutaneous responses. Clin Exp Allergy 1996; 26: 6878.
  • 40
    Varney V, Gaga M, Frew AJ, De Vos C, Kay AB. The effect of a single oral dose of prednisolone or cetirizine on inflammatory cells infiltrating allergen-induced cutaneous late-phase reactions in atopic subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1992; 22: 439.
  • 41
    Charlesworth EN, Kagey-Sobotka A, Schleimer RP, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM. Prednisone inhibits the appearance of inflammatory mediators and the influx of eosinophils and basophils associated with the cutaneous late-phase response to allergen. J Immunol 1991; 146: 6716.
  • 42
    Ying S, Kikuchi Y, Meng Q, Kay AB, Kaplan AP. TH1/TH2 cytokines and inflammatory cells in skin biopsy specimens from patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria: comparison with the allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109: 694700.
  • 43
    Ying S, Barata LT, Meng Q, Grant JA, Barkans J, Durham SR, Kay AB. High-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fc epsilon RI) -bearing eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages and Langerhans' cells in allergen-induced late-phase cutaneous reactions in atopic subjects. Immunology 1998; 93: 2818.
  • 44
    Hirasawa N, Izumi S, Linwong W, Ohuchi K. Inhibition by dexamethasone of interleukin 13 production via glucocorticoid receptor-mediated inhibition of c-Jun phosphorylation. FEBS Lett 2003; 554: 48993.
  • 45
    Sakuma S, Higashi Y, Sato N et al. Tacrolimus suppressed the production of cytokines involved in atopic dermatitis by direct stimulation of human PBMC system. (comparison with steroids). Int Immunopharmacol 2001; 1: 121926.
  • 46
    Mitsuta K, Shimoda T, Fukushima C, Obase Y, Ayabe H, Matsuse H, Kohno S. Preoperative steroid therapy inhibits cytokine production in the lung parenchyma in asthmatic patients. Chest 2001; 120: 117583.
  • 47
    Jaffuel D, Demoly P, Gougat C et al. Transcriptional potencies of inhaled glucocorticoids. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162: 5763.
  • 48
    Xing N, Ml LM, Bachman LA, McKean DJ, Kumar R, Griffin MD. Distinctive dendritic cell modulation by vitamin D(3) and glucocorticoid pathways. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 297: 64552.
  • 49
    Jahnsen FL, Haye R, Gran E, Brandtzaeg P, Johansen FE. Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia. J Immunol 1999; 163: 154551.
  • 50
    Sahid El-Radhi A, Hogg CL, Bungre JK, Bush A, Corrigan CJ. Effect of oral glucocorticoid treatment on serum inflammatory markers in acute asthma. Arch Dis Child 2000; 83: 15862.
  • 51
    Kakinuma T, Nakamura K, Wakugawa M et al. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in atopic dermatitis: serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine level is closely related with disease activity. J Allerg Clin Immunol 2001; 107: 53541.
  • 52
    Zweiman B, Parrott CM, Graif Y, David M, Lessin SR. Quantitative comparison of cytokine mRNA and inflammatory responses in cutaneous late phase allergic reactions. Cytokine 2000; 12: 106575.
  • 53
    Olivry T, Dean GA, Tompkins MB, Dow JL, Moore PF. Toward a canine model of atopic dermatitis: amplification of cytokine-gene transcripts in the skin of atopic dogs. Exp Dermatol 1999; 8: 20411.
  • 54
    Van der Ploeg I, Tehrani MJ, Matuseviciene G, Wahlgren CF, Fransson J. IL-13 over-expression in skin is not confined to IgE-mediated skin inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol 1997; 109: 52632.