• 1
    Ausubel FM. Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved? Nat Immunol 2005; 6:9739.
  • 2
    Powrie F, Maloy KJ. Immunology. Regulating the regulators. Science 2003; 299:10301.
  • 3
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Toll-dependent control mechanisms of CD4 T cell activation. Immunity 2004; 21:73341.
  • 4
    Liu G, Wu Y, Gong S, Zhao Y. Toll-like receptors and graft rejection. Transpl Immunol 2006; 16:2531.
  • 5
    Liu H, Komai-Koma M, Xu D, Liew FY. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling modulates the functions of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:704853.
  • 6
    Jefferies CA, Fitzgerald KA. Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Trends Mol Med 2005; 11:40311.
  • 7
    Uematsu S, Sato S, Yamamoto M et al. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 plays an essential role for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7- and TLR9-mediated interferon-α induction. J Exp Med 2005; 201:91523.
  • 8
    Andrade CF, Waddell TK, Keshavjee S, Liu M. Innate immunity and organ transplantation: the potential role of toll-like receptors. Am J Transplant 2005; 5:96975.
  • 9
    Blanco P, Viallard JF, Pellegrin JL, Moreau JF. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and autoimmunity. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2005; 17:7314.
  • 10
    Sibilia J. Novel concepts and treatments for autoimmune disease: ten focal points. Joint Bone Spine 2004; 71:5117.
  • 11
    Bach JF. Regulatory T cells under scrutiny. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3:18998.
  • 12
    Zou W. Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol 2006; 6:295307.
  • 13
    Yi H, Zhen Y, Jiang L, Zheng J, Zhao Y. The phenotypic characterization of naturally occurring regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells. Cell Mol Immunol 2006; 3:18995.
  • 14
    Caproni M, Torchia D, Antiga E, Volpi W, Bianco ED, Fabbri P. The effects of tacrolimus ointment on regulatory T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis. J Clin Immunol 2006; 26:3705.
  • 15
    Yang Y, Huang CT, Huang X, Pardoll DM. Persistent Toll-like receptor signals are required for reversal of regulatory T cell-mediated CD8 tolerance. Nat Immunol 2004; 5:50815.
  • 16
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptors: balancing host resistance with immune tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol 2003; 15:67782.
  • 17
    Houot R, Perrot I, Garcia E, Durand I, Lebecque S. Human CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells modulate myeloid but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells activation. J Immunol 2006; 176:52938.
  • 18
    Chaperot L, Blum A, Manches O, Lui G, Angel J, Molens JP, Plumas J. Virus or TLR agonists induce TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Immunol 2006; 176:24855.
  • 19
    Bettelli E, Carrier Y, Gao W, Korn T, Strom TB, Oukka M, Weiner HL, Kuchroo VK. Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature 2006; 441:2358.
  • 20
    Bellocchio S, Moretti S, Perruccio K et al. TLRs govern neutrophil activity in aspergillosis. J Immunol 2004; 173:740615.
  • 21
    Sutmuller RP, Den Brok MH, Kramer M et al. Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells. J Clin Invest 2006; 116:48594.
  • 22
    Kawai T, Akira S. TLR signaling. Cell Death Differ 2006; 13:81625.
  • 23
    Warger T, Osterloh P, Rechtsteiner G et al. Synergistic activation of dendritic cells by combined Toll-like receptor ligation induces superior CTL responses in vivo. Blood 2006; 108:54450.
  • 24
    Gautier G, Humbert M, Deauvieau F et al. A type I interferon autocrine-paracrine loop is involved in Toll-like receptor-induced interleukin-12p70 secretion by dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2005; 201:143546.
  • 25
    Lee J, Wu CC, Lee KJ et al. Activation of anti-hepatitis C virus responses via Toll-like receptor 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:182833.
  • 26
    Sun CM, Deriaud E, Leclerc C, Lo-Man R. Upon TLR9 signaling, CD5+ B cells control the IL-12-dependent Th1-priming capacity of neonatal DCs. Immunity 2005; 22:46777.
  • 27
    Wang RF, Peng G, Wang HY. Regulatory T cells and Toll-like receptors in tumor immunity. Semin Immunol 2006; 18:13642.
  • 28
    Hoshino K, Sugiyama T, Matsumoto M et al. IkappaB kinase-alpha is critical for interferon-alpha production induced by Toll-like receptors 7 and 9. Nature 2006; 440:94953.
  • 29
    Patel M, Xu D, Kewin P, Choo-Kang B, McSharry C, Thomson NC, Liew FY. TLR2 agonist ameliorates established allergic airway inflammation by promoting Th1 response and not via regulatory T cells. J Immunol 2005; 174:755863.
  • 30
    Murphy TJ, Choileain NN, Zang Y, Mannick JA, Lederer JA. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control innate immune reactivity after injury. J Immunol 2005; 174:295763.
  • 31
    Fitzgerald KA, McWhirter SM, Faia KL et al. IKKε and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol 2003; 4:4916.
  • 32
    Liew FY, Xu D, Brint EK, O'Neill LA. Negative regulation of toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5:44658.
  • 33
    Honda K, Yanai H, Negishi H et al. IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses. Nature 2005; 434:7727.
  • 34
    Oganesyan G, Saha SK, Guo B, He JQ, Shahangian A, Zarnegar B, Perry A, Cheng G. Critical role of TRAF3 in the Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent antiviral response. Nature 2006; 439:20811.
  • 35
    Johnson BJ, Le TT, Dobbin CA et al. Heat shock protein 10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediator production. J Biol Chem 2005; 280:403747.
  • 36
    Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ et al. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med 2003; 198:104355.
  • 37
    Jung DY, Lee H, Jung BY, Ock J, Lee MS, Lee WH, Suk K. TLR4, but not TLR2, signals autoregulatory apoptosis of cultured microglia: a critical role of IFN-beta as a decision maker. J Immunol 2005; 174:646776.
  • 38
    Nishiya T, Kajita E, Miwa S, Defranco AL. TLR3 and TLR7 are targeted to the same intracellular compartments by distinct regulatory elements. J Biol Chem 2005; 280:3710717.
  • 39
    Pasare C, Medzhitov R. Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells. Science 2003; 299:10336.
  • 40
    Yasutomi M, Ohshima Y, Omata N, Yamada A, Iwasaki H, Urasaki Y, Mayumi M. Erythromycin differentially inhibits lipopolysaccharide- or poly (I:C)-induced but not peptidoglycan-induced activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol 2005; 175:806976.
  • 41
    Crellin NK, Garcia RV, Hadisfar O, Allan SE, Steiner TS, Levings MK. Human CD4+ T cells express TLR5 and its ligand flagellin enhances the suppressive capacity and expression of FOXP3 in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells. J Immunol 2005; 175:80519.
  • 42
    Mazzoni A, Segal DM. Controlling the Toll road to dendritic cell polarization. J Leukoc Biol 2004; 75:72130.
  • 43
    Babu S, Blauvelt CP, Kumaraswami V, Nutman TB. Cutting edge: Diminished T cell TLR expression and function modulates the immune response in human filarial infection. J Immunol 2006; 176:38859.
  • 44
    Kabelitz D. Expression and function of Toll-like receptors in T lymphocytes. Curr Opin Immunol 2007; 19:3945.
  • 45
    Komai-Koma M, Jones L, Ogg GS, Xu D, Liew FY. TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101:302934.
  • 46
    Sutmuller RP, Morgan ME, Netea MG, Grauer O, Adema GJ. Toll-like receptors on regulatory T cells: expanding immune regulation. Trends Immunol 2006; 27:38793.
  • 47
    Caron G, Duluc D, Fremaux I, Jeannin P, David C, Gascan H, Delneste Y. Direct stimulation of human T cells via TLR5 and TLR7/8: flagellin and R-848 up-regulate proliferation and IFN-γ production by memory CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 2005; 175:15517.
  • 48
    Gelman AE, LaRosa DF, Zhang J, Walsh PT, Choi Y, Sunyer JO, Turka LA. The adaptor molecule MyD88 activates PI-3 kinase signaling in CD4+ T cells and enables CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated costimulation. Immunity 2006; 25:78393.
  • 49
    Caramalho I, Lopes-Carvalho T, Ostler D, Zelenay S, Haury M, Demengeot J. Regulatory T cells selectively express toll-like receptors and are activated by lipopolysaccharide. J Exp Med 2003; 197:40311.
  • 50
    Zelenay S, Lopes-Carvalho T, Caramalho I, Moraes-Fontes MF, Rebelo M, Demengeot J. Foxp3+ CD25– CD4 T cells constitute a reservoir of committed regulatory cells that regain CD25 expression upon homeostatic expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:40916.
  • 51
    Zhang L, Yi H, Xia XP, Zhao Y. Transforming growth factor-beta: an important role in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and immune tolerance. Autoimmunity 2006; 39:26976.
  • 52
    Peng G, Guo Z, Kiniwa Y et al. Toll-like receptor 8-mediated reversal of CD4+ regulatory T cell function. Science 2005; 309:13804.
  • 53
    Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity 2005; 23:1928.
  • 54
    Christensen SR, Shupe J, Nickerson K, Kashgarian M, Flavell RA, Shlomchik MJ. Toll-like receptor 7 and TLR9 dictate autoantibody specificity and have opposing inflammatory and regulatory roles in a murine model of lupus. Immunity 2006; 25:41728.
  • 55
    Mansson A, Adner M, Cardell LO. Toll-like receptors in cellular subsets of human tonsil T cells: altered expression during recurrent tonsillitis. Respir Res 2006; 7:36.
  • 56
    Dolganiuc A, Garcia C, Kodys K, Szabo G. Distinct Toll-like receptor expression in monocytes and T cells in chronic HCV infection. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12:1198204.
  • 57
    Kaiser WJ, Offermann MK. Apoptosis induced by the toll-like receptor adaptor TRIF is dependent on its receptor interacting protein homotypic interaction motif. J Immunol 2005; 174:494252.
  • 58
    Zanin-Zhorov A, Cahalon L, Tal G, Margalit R, Lider O, Cohen IR. Heat shock protein 60 enhances CD4CD25 regulatory T cell function via innate TLR2 signaling. J Clin Invest 2006; 116:202232.
  • 59
    Kubo T, Hatton RD, Oliver J, Liu X, Elson CO, Weaver CT. Regulatory T cell suppression and anergy are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines produced by TLR-activated dendritic cells. J Immunol 2004; 173:724958.
  • 60
    Martin M, Rehani K, Jope RS, Michalek SM. Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine production is differentially regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3. Nat Immunol 2005; 6:77784.
  • 61
    Rehli M. Of mice and men: species variations of Toll-like receptor expression. Trends Immunol 2002; 23:3758.
  • 62
    Sfondrini L, Rossini A, Besusso D, Merlo A, Tagliabue E, Menard S, Balsari A. Antitumor activity of the TLR-5 ligand flagellin in mouse models of cancer. J Immunol 2006; 176:662430.
  • 63
    Wang RF. Regulatory T cells and toll-like receptors in cancer therapy. Cancer Res 2006; 66:498790.
  • 64
    Heil F, Hemmi H, Hochrein H et al. Species-specific recognition of single-stranded RNA via toll-like receptor 7 and 8. Science 2004; 303:15269.
  • 65
    Chiffoleau E, Heslan JM, Heslan M, Louvet C, Condamine T, Cuturi MC. TLR9 ligand enhances proliferation of rat CD4+ T cell and modulates suppressive activity mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cell. Int Immunol 2007; 19:193201.
  • 66
    Li X, Shen S, Urso D, Kalique S, Park SH, Sharafieh R, O'Rourke J, Cone RE. Phenotypic and immunoregulatory characteristics of monocytic iris cells. Immunology 2006; 117:56675.
  • 67
    Liu G, Xia XP, Gong SL, Zhao Y. The macrophage heterogeneity: difference between mouse peritoneal exudate and splenic F4/80+ macrophages. J Cell Physiol 2006; 209:34152.
  • 68
    Aksoy E, Vanden Berghe W, Detienne S, Amraoui Z, Fitzgerald KA, Haegeman G, Goldman M, Willems F. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhances TRIF-dependent NF-kappa B activation and IFN-beta synthesis downstream of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4. Eur J Immunol 2005; 35:22009.
  • 69
    Aksoy E, Zouain CS, Vanhoutte F et al. Double-stranded RNAs from the helminth parasite Schistosoma activate TLR3 in dendritic cells. J Biol Chem 2005; 280:27783.
  • 70
    Naik SH, Proietto AI, Wilson NS et al. Cutting edge: generation of splenic CD8+ and CD8– dendritic cell equivalents in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand bone marrow cultures. J Immunol 2005; 174:65927.
  • 71
    Saemann MD, Weichhart T, Zeyda M et al. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein links innate immune cell activation with adaptive immunity via a Toll-like receptor-4-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest 2005; 115:46875.
  • 72
    O'Neill LA. Toll-like receptor signal transduction and the tailoring of innate immunity: a role for Mal? Trends Immunol 2002; 23:296300.
  • 73
    Duez C, Gosset P, Tonnel AB. Dendritic cells and toll-like receptors in allergy and asthma. Eur J Dermatol 2006; 16:126.
  • 74
    Barchet W, Price JD, Cella M et al. Complement-induced regulatory T cells suppress T-cell responses but allow for dendritic-cell maturation. Blood 2006; 107:1497504.
  • 75
    Zhao J, Kong HJ, Li H et al. IRF-8/interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein is involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and contributes to the cross-talk between TLR and IFN-γ signaling pathways. J Biol Chem 2006; 281:1007380.
  • 76
    Honma K, Udono H, Kohno T et al. Interferon regulatory factor 4 negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages in response to LPS. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:160016.
  • 77
    Romani L, Bistoni F, Perruccio K et al. Thymosin alpha 1 activates dendritic cell tryptophan catabolism and establishes a regulatory environment for balance of inflammation and tolerance. Blood 2006; 108:226574.
  • 78
    Higgins SC, Lavelle EC, McCann C et al. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate IL-10 activates antigen-specific regulatory T cells and confers resistance to Bordetella pertussis by inhibiting inflammatory pathology. J Immunol 2003; 171:311927.
  • 79
    Rutella S, Danese S, Leone G. Tolerogenic dendritic cells: cytokine modulation comes of age. Blood 2006; 108:143540.