SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Sospedra M, Martin R. Immunology of multiple sclerosis. Annu Rev Immunol 2005; 23:683747.
  • 2
    Gausas J, Paterson PY, Day ED, Dal Canto MC. Intact B-cell activity is essential for complete expression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. Cell Immunol 1982; 72:3606.
  • 3
    Willenborg DO, Prowse SJ. Immunoglobulin-deficient rats fail to develop experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 1983; 5:99109.
  • 4
    Myers KJ, Sprent J, Dougherty JP, Ron Y. Synergy between encephalitogenic T cells and myelin basic protein-specific antibodies in the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 1992; 41:18.
  • 5
    Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 1986; 136:234857.
  • 6
    Aggarwal S, Ghilardi N, Xie MH, De Sauvage FJ, Gurney AL. Interleukin-23 promotes a distinct CD4 T cell activation state characterized by the production of interleukin-17. J Biol Chem 2003; 278:19104.
  • 7
    Langrish CL, Chen Y, Blumenschein WM et al. IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation. J Exp Med 2005; 201:23340.
  • 8
    Annunziato F, Cosmi L, Santarlasci V et al. Phenotypic and functional features of human Th17 cells. J Exp Med 2007; 204:184961.
  • 9
    Acosta-Rodriguez EV, Napolitani G, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Interleukins 1beta and 6 but not transforming growth factor-beta are essential for the differentiation of interleukin 17-producing human T helper cells. Nat Immunol 2007; 8:9429.
  • 10
    Roncarolo MG, Bacchetta R, Bordignon C, Narula S, Levings MK. Type 1 T regulatory cells. Immunol Rev 2001; 182:6879.
  • 11
    Panitch HS, Hirsch RL, Haley AS, Johnson KP. Exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in patients treated with gamma interferon. Lancet 1987; 1:8935.
  • 12
    Moldovan IR, Rudick RA, Cotleur AC, Born SE, Lee JC, Karafa MT, Pelfrey CM. Interferon gamma responses to myelin peptides in multiple sclerosis correlate with a new clinical measure of disease progression. J Neuroimmunol 2003; 141:13240.
  • 13
    Lock C, Hermans G, Pedotti R et al. Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nat Med 2002; 8:5008.
  • 14
    Steinman L. A brief history of T(H)17, the first major revision in the T(H)1/T(H)2 hypothesis of T cell-mediated tissue damage. Nat Med 2007; 13:13945.
  • 15
    Park H, Li Z, Yang XO et al. A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17. Nat Immunol 2005; 6:113341.
  • 16
    Weiss HA, Millward JM, Owens T. CD8+ T cells in inflammatory demyelinating disease. J Neuroimmunol 2007; 191:7985.
  • 17
    Minagar A, Alexander JS. Blood–brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2003; 9:5409.
  • 18
    Zhang X, Koldzic DN, Izikson L, Reddy J, Nazareno RF, Sakaguchi S, Kuchroo VK, Weiner HL. IL-10 is involved in the suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells. Int Immunol 2004; 16:24956.
  • 19
    Bettelli E, Das MP, Howard ED, Weiner HL, Sobel RA, Kuchroo VK. IL-10 is critical in the regulation of autoimmune encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by studies of IL-10- and IL-4-deficient and transgenic mice. J Immunol 1998; 161:3299306.
  • 20
    Samoilova EB, Horton JL, Chen Y. Acceleration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice: roles of interleukin-10 in disease progression and recovery. Cell Immunol 1998; 188:11824.
  • 21
    Correale J, Gilmore W, McMillan M, Li S, McCarthy K, Le T, Weiner LP. Patterns of cytokine secretion by autoreactive proteolipid protein-specific T cell clones during the course of multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 1995; 154:295968.
  • 22
    Skapenko A, Niedobitek GU, Kalden JR, Lipsky PE, Schulze-Koops H. Generation and regulation of human Th1-biased immune responses in vivo: a critical role for IL-4 and IL-10. J Immunol 2004; 172:642734.
  • 23
    Arbour N, Holz A, Sipe JC, Naniche D, Romine JS, Zyroff J, Oldstone MB. A new approach for evaluating antigen-specific T cell responses to myelin antigens during the course of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 2003; 137:197209.
  • 24
    Crawford MP, Yan SX, Ortega SB et al. High prevalence of autoreactive, neuroantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis revealed by novel flow cytometric assay. Blood 2004; 103:422231.
  • 25
    Ota K, Matsui M, Milford EL, Mackin GA, Weiner HL, Hafler DA. T-cell recognition of an immunodominant myelin basic protein epitope in multiple sclerosis. Nature 1990; 346:1837.
  • 26
    Pette M, Fujita K, Kitze B, Whitaker JN, Albert E, Kappos L, Wekerle H. Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocyte lines from MS patients and healthy individuals. Neurology 1990; 40:17706.
  • 27
    Nielsen CH, Leslie RG, Jepsen BS, Kazatchkine MD, Kaveri SV, Fischer E. Natural autoantibodies and complement promote the uptake of a self antigen, human thyroglobulin, by B cells and the proliferation of thyroglobulin-reactive CD4(+) T cells in healthy individuals. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31:26608.
  • 28
    Traugott U, Reinherz EL, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis: distribution of T cell subsets within active chronic lesions. Science 1983; 219:30810.
  • 29
    Ozenci V, Kouwenhoven M, Huang YM, Kivisakk P, Link H. Multiple sclerosis is associated with an imbalance between tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)- and IL-10-secreting blood cells that is corrected by interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 120:14753.
  • 30
    Hohnoki K, Inoue A, Koh CS. Elevated serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and TNF-alpha/unelevated serum levels of IL-10 in patients with demyelinating diseases during the acute stage. J Neuroimmunol 1998; 87:2732.
  • 31
    De Jong BA, Schrijver HM, Huizinga TW et al. Innate production of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor affects the risk of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2000; 48:6416.
  • 32
    De Jong BA, Westendorp RG, Eskdale J, Uitdehaag BM, Huizinga TW. Frequency of functional interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism is different between relapse-onset and primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Hum Immunol 2002; 63:2815.
  • 33
    Burger D, Dayer JM. The role of human T-lymphocyte–monocyte contact in inflammation and tissue destruction. Arthritis Res 2002; 4(Suppl. 3):S16976.
  • 34
    Ding L, Linsley PS, Huang LY, Germain RN, Shevach EM. IL-10 inhibits macrophage costimulatory activity by selectively inhibiting the up-regulation of B7 expression. J Immunol 1993; 151:122434.
  • 35
    Fiorentino DF, Zlotnik A, Mosmann TR, Howard M, O’Garra A. IL-10 inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages. J Immunol 1991; 147:381522.
  • 36
    Pestka S, Krause CD, Walter MR. Interferons, interferon-like cytokines, and their receptors. Immunol Rev 2004; 202:832.
  • 37
    Minagar A, Long A, Ma T et al. Interferon (IFN)-beta 1a and IFN-beta 1b block IFN-gamma-induced disintegration of endothelial junction integrity and barrier. Endothelium 2003; 10:299307.
  • 38
    Steinman L. Optic neuritis, a new variant of experimental encephalomyelitis, a durable model for all seasons, now in its seventieth year. J Exp Med 2003; 197:106571.
  • 39
    Wiesemann E, Klatt J, Sonmez D, Blasczyk R, Heidenreich F, Windhagen A. Glatiramer acetate (GA) induces IL-13/IL-5 secretion in naive T cells. J Neuroimmunol 2001; 119:13744.
  • 40
    Chen M, Gran B, Costello K, Johnson K, Martin R, Dhib-Jalbut S. Glatiramer acetate induces a Th2-biased response and crossreactivity with myelin basic protein in patients with MS. Mult Scler 2001; 7:20919.
  • 41
    Sanna A, Fois ML, Arru G, Huang YM, Link H, Pugliatti M, Rosati G, Sotgiu S. Glatiramer acetate reduces lymphocyte proliferation and enhances IL-5 and IL-13 production through modulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in multiple sclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol 2006; 143:35762.
  • 42
    Link J, Soderstrom M, Olsson T, Hojeberg B, Ljungdahl A, Link H. Increased transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-4, and interferon-gamma in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1994; 36:37986.
  • 43
    Kennedy MK, Torrance DS, Picha KS, Mohler KM. Analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in the central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reveals that IL-10 mRNA expression correlates with recovery. J Immunol 1992; 149:2496505.
  • 44
    Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology 1983; 33:144452.