- Top of page
- The induction of Th2 responses by DCs
- The response of DCs to helminth products
- How are helminth products recognized by DCs?
- Inhibition of DC activation by helminth products
- Requirements for Th2 response induction by DCs pulsed with helminth antigen
- The role of other cell types in DC activation in response to helminths
- Helminths and host immune regulation – the big picture
- The interactions of helminths with DCs – a summary
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in activating CD4 T (T helper, Th) cells. As a component of their response to pathogen-associated stimuli, DCs produce cytokines and express surface molecules that provide important cues to modulate the effector functions of responding Th cells. Much is known of how DCs respond to, and influence immune response outcome to, bacterial and viral pathogens. However, relatively little is understood about how DCs respond to helminth parasites. This is an area of considerable interest since it impacts our understanding of the initiation of Th2 responses, which are stereotypically associated with helminth infections, and the regulation of allergic and autoimmune pathologies which evidence suggests are less severe or absent in individuals infected with helminths. This review attempts to summarize our understanding of the effects of helminth products on dendritic cell biology.