• 1
    Morris GE, Parker LC, Ward JR et al. Cooperative molecular and cellular networks regulate Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammatory responses. FASEB J 2006; 20:21535.
  • 2
    Morris GE, Whyte MKB, Martin GF, Jose PJ, Dower SK, Sabroe I. Agonists of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 activate airway smooth muscle via mononuclear leukocytes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 171:81422.
  • 3
    Parker LC, Prestwich EC, Ward JR, Smythe E, Berry A, Triantafilou M, Triantafilou K, Sabroe I. A phosphatidylserine species inhibits a range of TLR, but not IL-1β, induced inflammatory responses by disruption of membrane microdomains. J Immunol 2008; 181:560617.
  • 4
    Chen CJ, Kono H, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock KL. Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells. Nat Med 2007; 13:8516.
  • 5
    Rock KL, Kono H. The inflammatory response to cell death. Annu Rev Pathol 2008; 3:99126.
  • 6
    Satterthwaite G, Francis SE, Suvarna K, Blakemore S, Ward C, Wallace D, Braddock M, Crossman D. Differential gene expression in coronary arteries from patients presenting with ischemic heart disease: further evidence for the inflammatory basis of atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 2005; 150:48899.
  • 7
    Hansson GK. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2005; 352:168595.
  • 8
    Smeeth L, Thomas SL, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Farrington P, Vallance P. Risk of myocardial infarction and stroke after acute infection or vaccination. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:26118.
  • 9
    Wiedermann CJ, Kiechl S, Dunzendorfer S, Schratzberger P, Egger G, Oberhollenzer F, Willeit J. Association of endotoxemia with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: prospective results from the Bruneck Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34:197581.
  • 10
    Wiedermann CJ, Kiechl S, Schratzberger P, Dunzendorfer S, Weiss G, Willeit J. The role of immune activation in endotoxin-induced atherogenesis. J Endotoxin Res 2001; 7:3226.
  • 11
    Kiechl S, Lorenz E, Reindl M, Wiedermann CJ, Oberhollenzer F, Bonora E, Willeit J, Schwartz DA. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and atherogenesis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:18592.
  • 12
    Michelsen KS, Wong MH, Shah PK et al. Lack of Toll-like receptor 4 or myeloid differentiation factor 88 reduces atherosclerosis and alters plaque phenotype in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101:1067984.
  • 13
    Parker LC, Prince LR, Sabroe I. Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated by toll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. Clin Exp Immunol 2007; 147:199207.
  • 14
    Sabroe I, Read RC, Whyte MKB, Dockrell DH, Vogel SN, Dower SK. Toll-like receptors in health and disease: complex questions remain. J Immunol 2003; 171:16305.
  • 15
    Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JH, Wyllie DH, Dower SK, Segal DM. Regulation of Toll-Like receptors in human monocytes and dendritic cells. J Immunol 2001; 166:24955.
  • 16
    Faure E, Equils O, Sieling PA et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide activates NF-kappaB through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in cultured human dermal endothelial cells. Differential expression of TLR-4 and TLR-2 in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:1105863.
  • 17
    Sasu S, LaVerda D, Qureshi N, Golenbock DT, Beasley D. Chlamydia pneumoniae and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 stimulate proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells via toll-like receptor 4 and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Circ Res 2001; 89:24450.
  • 18
    Ward JR, Bingle L, Judge HM et al. Agonists of toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are unable to modulate platelet activation by adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. Thromb Haemost 2005; 94:8318.
  • 19
    Edfeldt K, Swedenborg J, Hansson GK, Yan ZQ. Expression of toll-like receptors in human atherosclerotic lesions: a possible pathway for plaque activation. Circulation 2002; 105:115861.
  • 20
    Chamberlain J, Evans D, King A, Dewberry R, Dower S, Crossman D, Francis S. Interleukin-1beta and signaling of interleukin-1 in vascular wall and circulating cells modulates the extent of neointima formation in mice. Am J Pathol 2006; 168:1396403.
  • 21
    Morton AC, Arnold ND, Gunn J, Varcoe R, Francis SE, Dower SK, Crossman DC. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist alters the response to vessel wall injury in a porcine coronary artery model. Cardiovasc Res 2005; 68:493501.
  • 22
    Sabroe I, Jones EC, Usher LR, Whyte MKB, Dower SK. Toll-Like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in human peripheral blood granulocytes: a critical role for monocytes in leukocyte lipopolysaccharide responses. J Immunol 2002; 168:470110.
  • 23
    Evans HG, Suddason T, Jackson I, Taams LS, Lord GM. Optimal induction of T helper 17 cells in humans requires T cell receptor ligation in the context of Toll-like receptor-activated monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104:170349.
  • 24
    Wilson HL, Varcoe RW, Stokes L, Holland KL, Francis SE, Dower SK, Surprenant A, Crossman DC. P2X receptor characterization and IL-1/IL-1Ra release from human endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol 2007; 151:11527.
  • 25
    Elson G, Dunn-Siegrist I, Daubeuf B, Pugin J. Contribution of toll-like receptors to the innate immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Blood 2007; 109:157483.
  • 26
    Rossignol DP, Lynn M. TLR4 antagonists for endotoxemia and beyond. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 6:496502.
  • 27
    Tsan MF, Gao B. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol 2004; 76:5149.
  • 28
    Wharram BL, Fitting K, Kunkel SL, Remick DG, Merritt SE, Wiggins RC. Tissue factor expression in endothelial cell/monocyte cocultures stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and/or aggregated IgG. Mechanisms of cell : cell communication. J Immunol 1991; 146:143745.
  • 29
    Pugin J, Ulevitch RJ, Tobias PS. A critical role for monocytes and CD14 in endotoxin-induced endothelial cell activation. J Exp Med 1993; 178:2193200.
  • 30
    Houston DS, Carson CW, Esmon CT. Endothelial cells and extracellular calmodulin inhibit monocyte tumor necrosis factor release and augment neutrophil elastase release. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:1177885.
  • 31
    Steppich BA, Moog P, Matissek C et al. Cytokine profiles and T cell function in acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis 2007; 190:44351.
  • 32
    Abbate A, Salloum FN, Vecile E et al. Anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, inhibits apoptosis in experimental acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2008; 117:267083.
  • 33
    Andonegui G, Bonder CS, Green F, Mullaly SC, Zbytnuik L, Raharjo E, Kubes P. Endothelium-derived Toll-like receptor-4 is the key molecule in LPS-induced neutrophil sequestration into lungs. J Clin Invest 2003; 111:101120.
  • 34
    Medvedev AE, Sabroe I, Hasday JD, Vogel SN. Tolerance to microbial TLR ligands: molecular mechanisms and relevance to disease. J Endotoxin Res 2006; 12:13350.
  • 35
    MacKenzie A, Wilson HL, Kiss-Toth E, Dower SK, North RA, Surprenant A. Rapid secretion of interleukin-1beta by microvesicle shedding. Immunity 2001; 15:82535.
  • 36
    Weaver CT, Hatton RD, Mangan PR, Harrington LE. IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages. Annu Rev Immunol 2007; 25:82152.
  • 37
    Schmidt-Weber CB, Akdis M, Akdis CA. TH17 cells in the big picture of immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 120:24754.
  • 38
    Stockinger B, Veldhoen M. Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2007; 19:2816.
  • 39
    Cheng X, Yu X, Ding YJ et al. The Th17/Treg imbalance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Clin Immunol 2008; 127:8997.
  • 40
    Malley R, Henneke P, Morse SC et al. Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100:196671.