• 1
    Harty JT, Tvinnereim AR, White DW. CD8+ T cell effector mechanisms in resistance to infection. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18:275308.
  • 2
    Perretti M, Flower RJ. Modulation of IL-1-induced neutrophil migration by dexamethasone and lipocortin 1. J Immunol 1993; 150:9929.
  • 3
    Ariel A, Chiang N, Arita M, Petasis NA, Serhan CN. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 and B4 analogs block extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent TNF-alpha secretion from human T cells. J Immunol 2003; 170:626672.
  • 4
    Ariel A, Serhan CN. Resolvins and protectins in the termination program of acute inflammation. Trends Immunol 2007; 28:17683.
  • 5
    Winn HR, Rubio R, Berne RM. Brain adenosine concentration during hypoxia in rats. Am J Physiol 1981; 241:H23542.
  • 6
    Zetterstrom T, Vernet L, Ungerstedt U, Tossman U, Jonzon B, Fredholm BB. Purine levels in the intact rat brain studies with an implanted perfused hollow fibre. Neurosci Lett 1982; 29:1115.
  • 7
    Decking UK, Schlieper G, Kroll K, Schrader J. Hypoxia-induced inhibition of adenosine kinase potentiates cardiac adenosine release. Circ Res 1997; 81:15464.
  • 8
    Pastor-Anglada M, Casado FJ, Valdes R, Mata J, Garcia-Manteiga J, Molina M. Complex regulation of nucleoside transporter expression in epithelial and immune system cells. Mol Membr Biol 2001; 18:815.
  • 9
    Synnestvedt K, Furuta GT, Comerford KM et al. Ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 mediates permeability changes in intestinal epithelia. J Clin Invest 2002; 110:9931002.
  • 10
    Deaglio S, Dwyer KM, Gao W et al. Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression. J Exp Med 2007; 204:125765.
  • 11
    Hasko G, Cronstein BN. Adenosine: an endogenous regulator of innate immunity. Trends Immunol 2004; 25:339.
  • 12
    Sitkovsky M, Lukashev D. Regulation of immune cells by local-tissue oxygen tension: HIF1 alpha and adenosine receptors. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5:71221.
  • 13
    Pouliot M, Fiset ME, Masse M, Naccache PH, Borgeat P. Adenosine up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 in human granulocytes: impact on the balance of eicosanoid generation. J Immunol 2002; 169:527986.
  • 14
    Gilroy DW, Colville-Nash PR, Willis D, Chivers J, Paul-Clark MJ, Willoughby DA. Inducible cyclooxygenase may have anti-inflammatory properties. Nat Med 1999; 5:698701.
  • 15
    Huang S, Apasov S, Koshiba M, Sitkovsky M. Role of A2a extracellular adenosine receptor-mediated signaling in adenosine-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation and expansion. Blood 1997; 90:160010.
  • 16
    Lappas CM, Rieger JM, Linden J. A2A adenosine receptor induction inhibits IFN-gamma production in murine CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 2005; 174:107380.
  • 17
    Koshiba M, Kojima H, Huang S, Apasov S, Sitkovsky MV. Memory of extracellular adenosine A2A purinergic receptor-mediated signaling in murine T cells. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:258819.
  • 18
    Sitkovsky MV, Ohta A. The ‘danger’ sensors that STOP the immune response: the A2 adenosine receptors? Trends Immunol 2005; 26:299304.
  • 19
    Cose S, Brammer C, Khanna KM, Masopust D, Lefrancois L. Evidence that a significant number of naive T cells enter non-lymphoid organs as part of a normal migratory pathway. Eur J Immunol 2006; 36:142333.
  • 20
    Limmer A, Ohl J, Kurts C et al. Efficient presentation of exogenous antigen by liver endothelial cells to CD8+ T cells results in antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. Nat Med 2000; 6:134854.
  • 21
    Feuerer M, Beckhove P, Garbi N et al. Bone marrow as a priming site for T-cell responses to blood-borne antigen. Nat Med 2003; 9:11517.
  • 22
    Dong RP, Kameoka J, Hegen M, Tanaka T, Xu Y, Schlossman SF, Morimoto C. Characterization of adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 on T cells and its biologic role in immune response. J Immunol 1996; 156:134955.
  • 23
    Frauwirth KA, Riley JL, Harris MH et al. The CD28 signaling pathway regulates glucose metabolism. Immunity 2002; 16:76977.
  • 24
    Meisel H, Gunther S, Martin D, Schlimme E. Apoptosis induced by modified ribonucleosides in human cell culture systems. FEBS Lett 1998; 433:2658.
  • 25
    Shortman K, Naik SH. Steady-state and inflammatory dendritic-cell development. Nat Rev Immunol 2007; 7:1930.
  • 26
    Diehl L, Schurich A, Grochtmann R, Hegenbarth S, Chen L, Knolle PA. Tolerogenic maturation of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells promotes B7-homolog 1-dependent CD8+ T cell tolerance. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md) 2008; 47:296305.
  • 27
    Skalhegg BS, Tasken K, Hansson V, Huitfeldt HS, Jahnsen T, Lea T. Location of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I with the TCR–CD3 complex. Science 1994; 263:847.
  • 28
    Hoskin DW, Butler JJ, Drapeau D, Haeryfar SM, Blay J. Adenosine acts through an A3 receptor to prevent the induction of murine anti-CD3-activated killer T cells. Int J Cancer 2002; 99:38695.
  • 29
    Straus DB, Weiss A. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the lck tyrosine kinase in signal transduction through the T cell antigen receptor. Cell 1992; 70:58593.
  • 30
    Bergman M, Mustelin T, Oetken C et al. The human p50csk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates p56lck at Tyr-505 and down regulates its catalytic activity. EMBO J 1992; 11:291924.
  • 31
    Nada S, Okada M, MacAuley A, Cooper JA, Nakagawa H. Cloning of a complementary DNA for a protein-tyrosine kinase that specifically phosphorylates a negative regulatory site of p60c-src. Nature 1991; 351:6972.
  • 32
    Mustelin T, Tasken K. Positive and negative regulation of T-cell activation through kinases and phosphatases. Biochem J 2003; 1:1527.
  • 33
    Wu J, Dent P, Jelinek T, Wolfman A, Weber MJ, Sturgill TW. Inhibition of the EGF-activated MAP kinase signaling pathway by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. Science 1993; 262:10659.
  • 34
    Hafner S, Adler HS, Mischak H et al. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14:6696703.
  • 35
    Park DJ, Min HK, Rhee SG. Inhibition of CD3-linked phospholipase C by phorbol ester and by cAMP is associated with decreased phosphotyrosine and increased phosphoserine contents of PLC-gamma 1. J Biol Chem 1992; 267:1496501.
  • 36
    Liu M, Simon MI. Regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase of a G-protein-mediated phospholipase C. Nature 1996; 382:837.
  • 37
    Molina CA, Foulkes NS, Lalli E, Sassone-Corsi P. Inducibility and negative autoregulation of CREM: an alternative promoter directs the expression of ICER, an early response repressor. Cell 1993; 75:87586.
  • 38
    Bodor J, Spetz AL, Strominger JL, Habener JF. cAMP inducibility of transcriptional repressor ICER in developing mature human T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93:353641.
  • 39
    Ohta A, Gorelik E, Prasad SJ et al. A2A adenosine receptor protects tumors from antitumor T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103:131327.
  • 40
    Grader-Beck T, Van Puijenbroek AA, Nadler LM, Boussiotis VA. cAMP inhibits both Ras and Rap1 activation in primary human T lymphocytes, but only Ras inhibition correlates with blockade of cell cycle progression. Blood 2003; 101:9981006.
  • 41
    Fredholm BB, Jzerman AP, Jacobson KA, Klotz KN, Linden J. International Union of Pharmacology XXV. Nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors. Pharmacol Rev 2001; 53:52752.
  • 42
    Burnstock G. Purine and pyrimidine receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci 2007; 64:147183.
  • 43
    Ohta A, Sitkovsky M. Role of G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors in downregulation of inflammation and protection from tissue damage. Nature 2001; 414:91620.
  • 44
    Sitkovsky MV, Lukashev D, Apasov S, Kojima H, Koshiba M, Caldwell C, Ohta A, Thiel M. Physiological control of immune response and inflammatory tissue damage by hypoxia-inducible factors and adenosine A2A receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 2004; 22:65782.
  • 45
    Erdmann AA, Gao ZG, Jung U, Foley J, Borenstein T, Jacobson KA, Fowler DH. Activation of Th1 and Tc1 cell adenosine A2A receptors directly inhibits IL-2 secretion in vitro and IL-2-driven expansion in vivo. Blood 2005; 105:470714.
  • 46
    Naganuma M, Wiznerowicz EB, Lappas CM, Linden J, Worthington MT, Ernst PB. Cutting edge: critical role for A2A adenosine receptors in the T cell-mediated regulation of colitis. J Immunol 2006; 177:27659.
  • 47
    Bowen DG, Zen M, Holz L, Davis T, McCaughan GW, Bertolino P. The site of primary T cell activation is a determinant of the balance between intrahepatic tolerance and immunity. J Clin Invest 2004; 114:70112.
  • 48
    Probst HC, McCoy K, Okazaki T, Honjo T, Van Den Broek M. Resting dendritic cells induce peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance through PD-1 and CTLA-4. Nat Immunol 2005; 6:2806.
  • 49
    Zarek PE, Huang CT, Lutz ER, Kowalski J, Horton MR, Linden J, Drake CG, Powell JD. A2A receptor signaling promotes peripheral tolerance by inducing T-cell anergy and the generation of adaptive regulatory T cells. Blood 2008; 111:2519.
  • 50
    Sevigny CP, Li L, Awad AS, Huang L, McDuffie M, Linden J, Lobo PI, Okusa MD. Activation of adenosine 2A receptors attenuates allograft rejection and alloantigen recognition. J Immunol 2007; 178:42409.