The production of interleukin-9 (IL-9) by CD4 T cells has gathered renewed interest as the result of the observation that its expression is broader than originally thought. This includes the production of IL-9 by a recently characterized subset of CD4 helper T (Th) cells that are termed Th9 as well as production by additional T-cell subsets including Th17 cells. There is an incomplete understanding as to which IL-9-producing T-cell subsets develop under physiological conditions. We describe the conditions used to generate IL-9 in Th17 cells in vitro. We also summarize conditions where both IL-9 and IL-17 are found in vivo and propose that Th17 cells producing IL-9 may co-exist and interact with Th9 cells during conditions of autoimmunity, allergy and infection.