Senior author: Shigeo Koyasu
Type 2 innate immune responses and the natural helper cell
Article first published online: 16 FEB 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 132, Issue 4, pages 475–481, April 2011
How to Cite
Koyasu, S. and Moro, K. (2011), Type 2 innate immune responses and the natural helper cell. Immunology, 132: 475–481. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03413.x
- Issue published online: 10 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 16 FEB 2011
- Received 16 December 2010, revised 7 January 2011, accepted 7 January 2011.
- adipose tissue;
- goblet cell hyperplasia;
The T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response, characterized by the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, is a critical immune response against helminths invading cutaneous or mucosal sites. It also plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic diarrhoea. The Th2 cytokines are induced soon after helminth infection, even before a pathogen-specific adaptive immune response is established. Recent studies have shed light on such innate Th2 cytokine production by formerly uncharacterized innate immune cells such as natural helper cells capable of producing Th2 cytokines in response to IL-25 and IL-33 independently of adaptive immune responses. These cells produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines, most notably IL-5 and IL-13, leading to eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia. We discuss here the mechanisms of innate production of Th2 cytokines in host immune responses against helminth infection as well as allergic immune responses and the similarities and differences between recently identified Th2-cytokine producing cells.