Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator
Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 134, Issue 2, pages 123–139, October 2011
How to Cite
Di Rosa, M., Malaguarnera, M., Nicoletti, F. and Malaguarnera, L. (2011), Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator. Immunology, 134: 123–139. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03482.x
- Issue published online: 6 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 10 JUL 2011 09:54PM EST
- Received 8 March 2011; revised 4 July 2011; accepted 5 July 2011.
- adaptive immunity;
- immune cells;
- innate immunity;
- vitamin D3
The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism and exerts a large number of biological effects. Vitamin D3 inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion, adaptive immunity and cell proliferation, and at the same time promotes insulin secretion, innate immunity and stimulates cellular differentiation. The role of vitamin D3 in immunoregulation has led to the concept of a dual function as both as an important secosteroid hormone for the regulation of body calcium homeostasis and as an essential organic compound that has been shown to have a crucial effect on the immune responses. Altered levels of vitamin D3 have been associated, by recent observational studies, with a higher susceptibility of immune-mediated disorders and inflammatory diseases. This review reports the new developments with specific reference to the metabolic and signalling mechanisms associated with the complex immune-regulatory effects of vitamin D3 on immune cells.