*Department of Comparative Anatomy, Jagellonian University, Karasia 6, 30460 Krakow, Poland.
The insect cytochrome oxidase I gene: evolutionary patterns and conserved primers for phylogenetic studies
Article first published online: 18 DEC 2007
Insect Molecular Biology
Volume 5, Issue 3, pages 153–165, August 1996
How to Cite
Lunt, D. H., Zhang, D.-X., Szymura, J. M. and Hewltt, O. M. (1996), The insect cytochrome oxidase I gene: evolutionary patterns and conserved primers for phylogenetic studies. Insect Molecular Biology, 5: 153–165. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.1996.tb00049.x
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2007
- Article first published online: 18 DEC 2007
- Received 14 July 1995; accepted 3 November 1995.
- Chorthlppus parallelus;
- cytochrome oxidase I;
- mitochondrial DNA;
- conserved PCR primers;
- genetic marker.
Insect mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes are used as a model to examine the within-gene heterogeneity of evolutionary rate and Its implications for evolutionary analyses. The complete sequence (1537 bp) of the meadow grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus) COI gene has been determined, and compared with eight other Insect COI genes at both the DNA and amino acid sequence levels. This reveals that different regions evolve at different rates, and the patterns of sequence variability seems associated with functional constraints on the protein. The COOH-terminal was found to be significantly more variable than Internal loops (I), external loops (E), transmembrane helices (M) or the NH2 terminal. The central region of COI (M5-M8) has lower levels of sequence variability, which Is related to several Important functional domains In this region. Highly conserved primers which amplify regions of different variabilities have been designed to cover the entire insect COI gene. These primers have been shown to amplify COI in a wide range of species, representing all the major insect groups; some even In an arachnid. Implications of the observed evolutionary pattern for phylogenetic analysis are discussed, with particular regard to the choice of regions of suitable variability for specific phylogenetic projects.