The transcriptome of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands

Authors

  • E. Calvo,

    1. University of California, Irvine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Irvine, CA, USA;
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  • J. Andersen,

    1. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, Bethesda, MD, USA; and
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  • I. M. Francischetti,

    1. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, Bethesda, MD, USA; and
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  • M. DeL. Capurro,

    1. Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Parasitologia – ICB, Avenue. Prof Lineu Prestes, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • A. G. DeBianchi,

    1. Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Parasitologia – ICB, Avenue. Prof Lineu Prestes, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • A. A. James,

    1. University of California, Irvine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Irvine, CA, USA;
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  • J. M. C. Ribeiro,

    1. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Section of Vector Biology, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, Bethesda, MD, USA; and
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  • O. Marinotti

    Corresponding author
    1. University of California, Irvine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Irvine, CA, USA;
      O. Marinotti, University of California, Irvine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 2315 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697–3900, USA. Tel.: +1 949 8243210; fax: +1 949 8242814; e-mail: omarinot@uci.edu
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O. Marinotti, University of California, Irvine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, 2315 McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697–3900, USA. Tel.: +1 949 8243210; fax: +1 949 8242814; e-mail: omarinot@uci.edu

Abstract

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi is an important malaria vector in South and Central America; however, little is known about molecular aspects of its biology. Genomic and proteomic analyses were performed on the salivary gland products of Anopheles darlingi. A total of 593 randomly selected, salivary gland-derived cDNAs were sequenced and assembled based on their similarities into 288 clusters. The putative translated proteins were classified into three categories: (S) secretory products, (H) housekeeping products and (U) products with unknown cell location and function. Ninety-three clusters encode putative secreted proteins and several of them, such as an anophelin, a thrombin inhibitor, apyrases and several new members of the D7 protein family, were identified as molecules involved in haematophagy. Sugar-feeding related enzymes (α-glucosidases and α-amylase) also were found among the secreted salivary products. Ninety-nine clusters encode housekeeping proteins associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, signal transduction and other cellular functions. Ninety-seven clusters encode proteins with no similarity with known proteins. Comparison of the sequence divergence of the S and H categories of proteins of An. darlingi and An. gambiae revealed that the salivary proteins are less conserved than the housekeeping proteins, and therefore are changing at a faster evolutionary rate. Tabular and supplementary material containing the cDNA sequences and annotations are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/Mosquito/A_darlingi_sialome/

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