To determine if gene expression of An. gambiae is modulated in response to o’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) infection, we utilized cDNA microarrays including about 20 000 cDNAs. Gene expression levels of ONNV-infected female mosquitoes were compared to that of the uninfected control females harvested at 14 days postinfection. In response to ONNV infection, expression levels of 18 genes were significantly modulated, being at least two-fold up- or down-regulated. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR) further substantiated the differential expression of six of these genes in response to ONNV infection. These genes have similarity to a putative heat shock protein 70, DAN4, agglutinin attachment subunit, elongation factor 1 alpha and ribosomal protein L35. One gene, with sequence similarity to mitochondrial ribosomal protein L7, was down-regulated in infected mosquitoes. The expression levels and annotation of the differentially expressed genes are discussed in the context of host/virus interaction including host translation/replication factors, and intracellular transport pathways.