These authors contributed equally to this work.
A novel association between clustered NF-κB and C/EBP binding sites is required for immune regulation of mosquito Defensin genes
Article first published online: 2 AUG 2006
Insect Molecular Biology
Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 393–401, August 2006
How to Cite
Meredith, J. M., Munks, R. J. L., Grail, W., Hurd, H., Eggleston, P. and Lehane, M. J. (2006), A novel association between clustered NF-κB and C/EBP binding sites is required for immune regulation of mosquito Defensin genes. Insect Molecular Biology, 15: 393–401. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00635.x
- Issue published online: 2 AUG 2006
- Article first published online: 2 AUG 2006
- doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2006.00635.x; Received 7 July 2005; accepted after revision 14 November 2005.
- Immune regulation;
- Defensin genes;
A comparative analysis identified key cis-acting regulatory elements responsible for the temporal control of mosquito Defensin gene expression. The promoters of Anopheles gambiae Defensin 1 and two isoforms of Aedes aegypti Defensin A are up-regulated by immune challenge. This stimulated activity depends upon a cluster of three NF-κB binding sites and closely associated C/EBP-like motifs, which function as a unit for optimal promoter activity. Binding of NF-κB and C/EBP like transcription factors is confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, including supershifts with antibodies to C/EBP. κB-like motifs are abundant within antimicrobial peptide gene promoters and most are very closely associated with putative C/EBP binding sites. This novel association between NF-κB and C/EBP binding sites may, therefore, be of widespread significance.