• Open Access

The PKA-CREB system encoded by the honeybee genome


  • D. Eisenhardt,

  • C. Kühn,

  • G. Leboulle

  • Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

D. Eisenhardt, Neurobiology, FB Biology/Chemistry/Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Strasse 28/30, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Tel.: +49 30 83856537; fax: +49 30 83855455; e-mail: theodora@neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de


The cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) plays a crucial part in long-term memory formation in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). One of the putative substrates of the PKA activity is the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor in the bZIP protein family. We searched the honeybee genome to characterize genes from the CREB/CREM and the PKA families. We identified two genes that encode regulatory subunits and three genes encode catalytic subunits of PKA. Eight genes code for bZIP proteins, but only one gene was found that encodes a member of the CREB/CREM family. The phylogenetic relationship of these genes was analysed with their Drosophila and human counterparts.