A cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms approach was undertaken to screen for candidate genes associated with fenvalerate resistance in the AN02 strain of Helicoverpa armigera. Larvae and adults of this strain manifest ~50-fold resistance, which is suppressible by piperonyl butoxide and controlled by the semidominant gene RFen1 previously mapped to AFLP Linkage Group 13. Two cytochrome P450s (CYP337B1 and CYP4S1), one carboxylesterase-like protein and one glutathione transferase were found to be constitutively upregulated in resistant insects. Mapping of these potential detoxification genes showed that one of them, the novel P450 CYP337B1, was tightly linked to the resistance locus. This suggests that the RFen1R allele has a cis-acting effect on CYP337B1 expression, and possible trans-acting effects on expression of other genes.