Aim To assess the outcome of apexification using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).
Methodology Fifty-seven teeth with open apices on 50 patients referred for root canal treatment received an apexification procedure in one appointment with MTA by the same operator. Patients were recalled at 6 months, 12 months and every year thereafter. Blind to the treatment record, two examiners assessed the pre-treatment, post-treatment and control radiographs of the study patients in a dark room using a magnifier. Each apex visible on the radiographs was scored with the periapical index (PAI), and the size of the apical lesion was measured. The presence of an apical bridge was also noted. Kappa-Cohen test was used for examiners calibration. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of apical healing.
Results Forty-three cases were included with at least 12 months follow-up. When considering the PAI score and the decrease in size of the apical lesion, healing occurred in 81% of cases.
Conclusion Apexification in one step using an apical plug of MTA can be considered a predictable treatment, and may be an alternative to the use of calcium hydroxide.