Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution
Article first published online: 5 JUL 2011
© 2011 International Endodontic Journal
International Endodontic Journal
Volume 44, Issue 10, pages 938–949, October 2011
How to Cite
Gandolfi, M. G., Taddei, P., Siboni, F., Modena, E., Ginebra, M. P. and Prati, C. (2011), Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution. International Endodontic Journal, 44: 938–949. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2011.01907.x
- Issue published online: 6 SEP 2011
- Article first published online: 5 JUL 2011
- Received 1 February 2011; accepted 14 May 2011
- bioactive materials;
- calcium hydroxide;
- calcium release;
- calcium-silicate cements;
- endodontic cements;
- fluoride release;
- fluoride-doped MTA;
- mineral trioxide aggregate
Gandolfi MG, Taddei P, Siboni F, Modena E, Ginebra MP, Prati C. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution. International Endodontic Journal, 44, 938–949, 2011.
Aim To test the chemical–physical properties and apatite-forming ability of experimental fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements designed to create novel bioactive materials for use in endodontics and oral surgery.
Methodology A thermally treated calcium silicate cement (wTC) containing CaCl2 5%wt was modified by adding NaF 1%wt (FTC) or 10%wt (F10TC). Cements were analysed by environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy in wet conditions immediately after preparation or after ageing in a phosphate-containing solution (Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline). Calcium and fluoride release and pH of the storage solution were measured. The results obtained were analysed statistically (Tukey’s HSD test and two-way anova).
Results The formation of calcium phosphate precipitates (spherulites) was observed on the surface of 24 h-aged cements and the formation of a thick bone-like B-type carbonated apatite layer (biocoating) on 28 day-aged cements. The rate of apatite formation was FTC > F10TC > wTC. Fluorapatite was detected on FTC and F10TC after 1 day of ageing, with a higher fluoride content on F10TC. All the cements released calcium ions. At 5 and 24 h, the wTC had the significantly highest calcium release (P < 0.001) that decreased significantly over the storage time. At 3–28 days, FTC and F10TC had significantly higher calcium release than wTC (P < 0.05). The F10TC had the significantly highest fluoride release at all times (P < 0.01) that decreased significantly over storage time. No significant differences were observed between FTC and wTC. All the cements had a strong alkalinizing activity (OH− release) that remained after 28 days of storage.
Conclusions The addition of sodium fluoride accelerated apatite formation on calcium silicate cements. Fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements had higher bioactivity and earlier formation of fluorapatite. Sodium fluoride may be introduced in the formulation of mineral trioxide aggregate cements to enhance their biological behaviour. F-doped calcium silicate cements are promising bone cements for clinical endodontic use.