For the medium- and low-dose cases, only 24 h urine samples were collected.
Phthalates: metabolism and exposure
Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2007
© 2008 The Authors
International Journal of Andrology
Volume 31, Issue 2, pages 131–138, April 2008
How to Cite
Wittassek, M. and Angerer, J. (2008), Phthalates: metabolism and exposure. International Journal of Andrology, 31: 131–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00837.x
- Issue online: 7 DEC 2007
- Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2007
- Received 18 July 2007; revised 9 September 2007; accepted 11 October 2007
- cumulative TDI;
- human exposure;
- human metabolism;
Summary In human metabolism studies we found that after oral application of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), at least 74, 44 and 34%, respectively, are excreted via urine. In contrast to the short chain phthalates, their oxidized products, not the simple monoesters, were found to be the main metabolites. Based on urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations we estimated in 102 German subjects between 6 and 80 years of age median daily intakes (μg/kg/day) of 2.7 for DEHP, 2.1 for di-n-butyl phthalate, 1.5 for diisobutyl phthalate, 0.6 for DiNP, and 0.3 for butylbenzyl phthalate. In general, children have higher exposures compared to adults and seem to have a more effective oxidative metabolism of phthalates. For individual phthalates tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been deduced. However, in rats some phthalates have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters via a common mechanism of action in a dose-additive manner. Therefore, the concept of a cumulative TDI value may be more appropriate for the consideration of the overall exposure and the potential human health risks resulting from everyday and simultaneous exposure to several phthalates.