These authors contributed equally to this study.
Hypogonadism, ED, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a pathological link supporting cardiovascular diseases
Article first published online: 16 FEB 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 European Academy of Andrology
International Journal of Andrology
Volume 32, Issue 6, pages 587–598, December 2009
How to Cite
Corona, G., Mannucci, E., Forti, G. and Maggi, M. (2009), Hypogonadism, ED, metabolic syndrome and obesity: a pathological link supporting cardiovascular diseases. International Journal of Andrology, 32: 587–598. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00951.x
This is a review for the 5th European Congress of Andrology, Rome, Italy, 2008.
- Issue published online: 4 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 16 FEB 2009
- Received 6 October 2008; revised 17 November 2008; accepted 18 November 2008
- cardiovascular diseases;
- erectile dysfunction;
- metabolic syndrome;
Hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction (ED), visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) often coexist in the same subjects. This cluster of abnormalities is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), affecting not only quality of life but also life expectancy. Longitudinal studies have also demonstrated that ED and male hypogonadism could be considered surrogate markers of incident CVD and MetS. However, how androgens signal fat depots and lessen them is still a matter of active research and whether or not low testosterone could play a pathogenetic role in CVD is still under debate. Hence, pathogenetic mechanisms linking hypogonadism with obesity and insulin resistance appear to be complex and often multi-directional. Visceral obesity can probably be considered a relevant cause of hypogonadism but at the same time, hypogonadism could be a cause of obesity and insulin resistance, consequently establishing a vicious cycle. To provide a critical analysis of these issues, a comprehensive literary search was carried out to discuss the relationship between insulin resistance ED, visceral adiposity, MetS and hypogonadism focusing on their possible involvement in the development of CVD.