Neuro-invasion by a ‘Trojan Horse’ strategy and vasculopathy during intrauterine flavivirus infection

Authors

  • Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann,

    1. School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
    2. Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Natalia P. Smirnova,

    1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Airn-Elizabeth Tolnay,

    1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Brett T. Webb,

    1. Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    2. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Alfredo Q. Antoniazzi,

    1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Hana van Campen,

    1. Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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  • Thomas R. Hansen

    1. Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
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Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
School of Veterinary Science
University of Queensland
Gatton Campus
Qld 4343
Australia
Tel.: +61 407 500 522
Fax: +61 7-5460 1922
E-mail: h.bielefeldtohmann1@uq.edu.au

Summary

The central nervous system (CNS) is a major target of several important human and animal viral pathogens causing congenital infections. However, despite the importance of neuropathological outcomes, for humans in particular, the pathogenesis, including mode of neuro-invasion, remains unresolved for most congenital virus infections. Using a natural model of congenital infection with an RNA virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus in pregnant cattle, we sought to delineate the timing and mode of virus neuro-invasion of and spread within the brain of foetuses following experimental respiratory tract infection of the dams at day 75 of pregnancy, a time of maximal risk of tissue pathology without foetal death. Virus antigen was first detected in the foetal brains 14 days postinfection of dams and was initially restricted to amoeboid microglial cells in the periventricular germinal layer. The appearance of these cells was preceded by or concurrent with vasculopathy in the same region. While the affected microvessels were negative for virus antigen, they expressed high levels of the type I interferon-stimulated protein ISG15 and eventually disappeared in parallel with the appearance of microcavitary lesions. Subsequently, the virus spread to neurons and other glial cells. Our findings suggest that the virus enters the CNS via infected microglial precursors, the amoeboid microglial cells, in a ‘Trojan horse’ mode of invasion and that the microcavitary lesions are associated with loss of periventricular microvasculature, perhaps as a consequence of high, unrestricted induction of interferon-regulated proteins.

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