Determination of the Relative Concentrations of the Major Aldehydes in Lemon, Orange and Grapefruit Oils by Gas Chromatography ab


  • a

    Work supported in part by Lemon Products Technical Committee, Los Angeles, California.

  • b

    Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, San Francisco, California, May 17, 1960.

  • c

    A laboratory of the Western Utilization Research and Development Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.


The Girard-T reagent was used to recover the aldehydes from cold-pressed lemon, orange and grapefruit oils for subsequent quantitative gas chromatographic analysis. Optimum conditions for analysis were worked out with a known mixture of citral and the saturated aliphatic aldehydes which occur in major concentration in lemon oil. Isopropanol was used in the preparative step to eliminate acetal formation and isopentane in the final extractions to reduce losses of the lower-molecular-weight aldehydes during vacuum concentration of the sample for gas chromatographic analysis. Typical analyses are given for samples of domestic cold-pressed citrus oils.