Statistical Evaluation of Data for Detecting Adulteration of California Navel Orange Juice

Authors

  • CARL E. VANDERCOOK,

    1. Authors Vandercook and Smolensky are with the USDA, ARS, WR, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, 263 South Chester Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106. Author Navarro is now affiliated with the Institute de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimentos, Valencia-10, Spain. Authors Nelson and Park are with Sunkist Growers, Inc., Ontario, CA 91761.
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  • JOSÉ L. NAVARRO,

    1. Authors Vandercook and Smolensky are with the USDA, ARS, WR, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, 263 South Chester Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106. Author Navarro is now affiliated with the Institute de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimentos, Valencia-10, Spain. Authors Nelson and Park are with Sunkist Growers, Inc., Ontario, CA 91761.
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  • DORA C. SMOLENSKY,

    1. Authors Vandercook and Smolensky are with the USDA, ARS, WR, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, 263 South Chester Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106. Author Navarro is now affiliated with the Institute de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimentos, Valencia-10, Spain. Authors Nelson and Park are with Sunkist Growers, Inc., Ontario, CA 91761.
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  • DENNY B. NELSON,

    1. Authors Vandercook and Smolensky are with the USDA, ARS, WR, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, 263 South Chester Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106. Author Navarro is now affiliated with the Institute de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimentos, Valencia-10, Spain. Authors Nelson and Park are with Sunkist Growers, Inc., Ontario, CA 91761.
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  • GARY L. PARK

    1. Authors Vandercook and Smolensky are with the USDA, ARS, WR, Fruit and Vegetable Chemistry Laboratory, 263 South Chester Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106. Author Navarro is now affiliated with the Institute de Agroquimica y Technologia de Alimentos, Valencia-10, Spain. Authors Nelson and Park are with Sunkist Growers, Inc., Ontario, CA 91761.
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  • Portions of this paper were presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, Atlanta, GA, June, 1981.

ABSTRACT

Compositional data from California early-, mid-, and late-season navel orange juice, concentrate and two-stage pulpwash were analyzed by various statistical techniques (ratios, regression, chi-square, Linear combination, and discriminant analysis) for detecting adulteration. These techniques were evaluated according to applicability for detecting three types of adulteration: (1) addition of sugar and/or citric acid, (2) addition of excess or unauthorized pulpwash, and (3) addition of other constituents intended to mask the dilution. Most parameters were significantly affected by time of harvest following commercial maturity. Two-stage pulpwash showed small but significant differences from corresponding single strength juice. Product differences were of about the same magnitude as the differences due to harvest date.

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