Pasteurized whole milk was concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) on a pilot plant scale. The retentate was then used to produce cheddar cheese following the traditional method but using 50% less starter and 60% less rennet. The biochemical composition of the RO cheese was close to that of ordinary cheddar. The resulting non uniformity of the fresh curd as well as the granular texture of the cheese were probably due to the high lactose content of the retentate. Contamination of the milk from bacteria already present in the reverse osmosis system caused the high coliform level of the cheese.