Site visits to 15 apple juice or cider facilities were conducted in New York State. Washed apples, pulp, press juice, final product, and other samples, when appropriate, were sampled aseptically. Samples were plated on acidified potato dextrose agar, before and after heating at 70°C for 1-2 hr. For unheated samples, molds predominated in fruit, yeasts and molds in pulp, and yeasts in press and final juice samples. Average counts were 2.8 × 104, 7.3 × 104, 1.7 × 105, and 1.4 × 105/g, respectively. Heat resistant yeasts, molds, and bacteria were isolated frequently, generally at a level of less than 1 per log.