Three red onion (Allium cepa) cultivars, top onion (A. cepa var. vivi-parum), A. altaicum and chive (A. schoenoprasum) contained several or all of the following anthocyanins: 3-(6′-malonyl-3′-glucosylglucoside), 3-(3′,6′-dimalonylglucoside), 3-(6′-malonylglucoside), 3-(3′-malonyl-glucoside), 3-(3′-glucosylglucoside) and 3-glucoside of cyanidin. Trace amounts of two pelargonidin derivatives and the 3,5-diglucosides of cyanidin and peonidin were for the first time reported in red onion. Carbon NMR data showed that the sugars of the 3-(6′-malonyl-3′-glu-cosylglucoside), 3-(6′-malonylglucoside) and 3-glucoside of cyanidin were pyranoses. Substitution either by sugar or acid in the sugar 3-position of an anthocyanin has never been reported outside the genus Allium.