• wheat;
  • flour;
  • cake baking;
  • impingement;
  • microwave;
  • ovens


White layer cakes were baked in three types of air impingement ovens, a hybrid (microwave/air impingement) oven, and a reel oven. Cakes were evaluated based on volume, crust color, and texture. Oven heat transfer rates were measured directly, and ranged from 22.8 to 84.8 J/s m2C° for top and from 17.4 to 110.9 for bottom surfaces, exposed in the different ovens, with the conventional reel oven having the lowest values. An RSM design was used to establish optimum baking conditions for each oven. For air impingement ovens, baking time was reduced by almost half but produced cakes very similar to those from the control (reel) oven. Incorporating microwaves enabled a further reduction in baking time, to one fourth. Cakes baked with microwaves had similar color, but had 15% less volumes and firmer textures than control cakes.