Reduced-fat cheese showed higher levels of ethanol and lower acetoin than full-fat samples throughout ripening regardless of conditions. Total headspace volatiles, as well as butanoic and hexanoic acids, increased with ripening time and temperature. Full- and reduced-fat cheeses developed distinctly different headspace volatile profiles throughout ripening. The effects of ripening conditions were more notable in full-fat samples. Ripening reduced-fat Cheddar cheese at an elevated temperature for a limited time may enhance development of some desirable volatiles such as butanoic acid.