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Keywords:

  • microwave;
  • toughness;
  • bread;
  • emulsifiers

ABSTRACT

Bread slices were placed in a custom holding device and cut with a wire cutter attached to a TA.XT2 Texture Analyzer. The peak force required to cut the bread was taken as a measure of toughness. Microwave reheated, conventionally reheated, and unheated bread were compared as were the effects of bread age (firming). Certain emulsifiers were added and microwave toughness of bread compared. Use of certain emulsifiers and increasing the water content of the bread (through use of fiber) decreased toughness of microwave-reheated bread. The developed method was effective in measuring microwave heating induced toughness.