• heterocyclic amines;
  • formation;
  • kinetics;
  • IQx;
  • PhIP


A model system was used to examine kinetics of formation of polar heterocyclic amines by heating the precursors creatinine, glucose and amino acids in proportions similar to those in bovine meat but at higher concentrations. Formation of heterocyclic amines was studied between 150 and 225°C for 0.5–120 min, depending on temperature. Heated samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis, with photodiode array detection for identification and quantification of heterocyclic amines. IQx, MeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman and norharman were identified. A first-order reaction model and the Eyring equation were fitted to the formation of polar heterocyclic amines to obtain rate constants and their temperature dependence.