Fat Bloom and Chocolate Structure Studied by Mercury Porosimetry

Authors

  • C. LOISEL,

    1. Authors Loisel and Lecq are with Centre Jean Thèves, groupe DANONE Branche Biscuits, 6 rue Edouard Vaillant, BP 16, 91207 Athis-Mons Cedex, France. Authors Loisel, Ponchel, Keller and Ollivon are affiliated with Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Systèmes Polyphasés, CNRS URA 1218, Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Address inquiries to Dr. C. Loisel.
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  • G. LECQ,

    1. Authors Loisel and Lecq are with Centre Jean Thèves, groupe DANONE Branche Biscuits, 6 rue Edouard Vaillant, BP 16, 91207 Athis-Mons Cedex, France. Authors Loisel, Ponchel, Keller and Ollivon are affiliated with Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Systèmes Polyphasés, CNRS URA 1218, Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Address inquiries to Dr. C. Loisel.
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  • G. PONCHEL,

    1. Authors Loisel and Lecq are with Centre Jean Thèves, groupe DANONE Branche Biscuits, 6 rue Edouard Vaillant, BP 16, 91207 Athis-Mons Cedex, France. Authors Loisel, Ponchel, Keller and Ollivon are affiliated with Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Systèmes Polyphasés, CNRS URA 1218, Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Address inquiries to Dr. C. Loisel.
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  • G. KELLER,

    1. Authors Loisel and Lecq are with Centre Jean Thèves, groupe DANONE Branche Biscuits, 6 rue Edouard Vaillant, BP 16, 91207 Athis-Mons Cedex, France. Authors Loisel, Ponchel, Keller and Ollivon are affiliated with Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Systèmes Polyphasés, CNRS URA 1218, Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Address inquiries to Dr. C. Loisel.
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  • M. OLLIVON

    1. Authors Loisel and Lecq are with Centre Jean Thèves, groupe DANONE Branche Biscuits, 6 rue Edouard Vaillant, BP 16, 91207 Athis-Mons Cedex, France. Authors Loisel, Ponchel, Keller and Ollivon are affiliated with Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Systèmes Polyphasés, CNRS URA 1218, Université Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Address inquiries to Dr. C. Loisel.
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  • We thank Dr. J.M. Ramel for help in recording radiographs and Dr. G. Barratt for editing the manuscript. C. Loisel was supported by a grant from Association Nationale de la Recherche Technique (A.N.R.T., convention CIFRE) and groupe DANONE.

ABSTRACT

The structure of dark chocolate samples was analyzed by mercury porosimetry in order to determine whether the formation of fat bloom was related to the presence of pores. The influence of cocoa butter concentration and tempering conditions on porosity were determined by using samples containing 29.5 or 31.9% fat, which were under, well or over-tempered. All Mercury porosimetry analysis confirmed the presence of a porous structure in all chocolates. Empty spaces represented about 1% of the whole volume of a well-tempered chocolate containing 31.9% cocoa butter but made up about 4% of the over-tempered chocolate. A well-tempered chocolate with only 29.5% cocoa butter showed the presence of about 2% empty spaces. From these observations and gas permeability a possible model for the microscopic structure was developed.

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