Shelf life (onset of sensory spoilage) and potential for toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E in retail type packages of fresh catfish fillets in high barrier film were investigated under selected atmospheres when stored under refrigeration and temperature-abuse conditions. Shelf life of fillets in all atmospheres decreased with increase of storage temperature from 4°C to 16°C. Trimethylamine content associated with onset of spoilage was different for each storage temperature and atmosphere. Surface pH and K-values were not good indicators of onset of sensory spoilage. Toxin development coincided with sensory spoilage at 16°C storage for fillets packaged in either atmosphere. At 4°C, none of the MA-packaged fillets became toxic, even after 37 days of sensory spoilage.