• divalent salts;
  • cook yield;
  • texture;
  • gel ultra-structure;
  • beef batters


Effects of 0.05% CaCl2, MgCl2, or ZnCl2, with or without 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), were investigated in high fat (HF; 30% fat) or low fat (LF; 10% fat) model beef batters. Cook yield (CY), texture, and gel ultrastructure were evaluated. With STPP, CaCl2 increased CY, and in the absence of STPP, ZnCl2 decreased CY and cohesiveness (p<0.05). Low-fat, ZnCl2-treated batters without STPP had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness. Addition of STPP resulted in a homogeneous matrix in HF batters. In MgCl2-treated HF batters, protein film surrounding fat globules had greater integrity than control, CaCl2 or ZnCl2 treatments. In ZnCl2-treated HF batters (without STPP) a protein sheet was present without evidence of film encased droplets. Low-fat batters with STPP had finer, more porous networks than those without STPP.