Applications of electronic noses and tongues in food analysis


*Fax: (868) 662-7177;

Present address: Caribbean Industrial Research Institute, University of the West Indies Campus, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies


This review examines the applications of electronic noses and tongues in food analysis. A brief history of the development of sensors is included and this is illustrated by descriptions of the different types of sensors utilized in these devices. As pattern recognition techniques are widely used to analyse the data obtained from these multisensor arrays, a discussion of principal components analysis and artificial neural networks is essential. An introduction to the integration of electronic tongues and noses is also incorporated and the strengths and weaknesses of both are described. Applications described include identification and classification of flavour and aroma and other measurements of quality using the electronic nose. The uses of the electronic tongue in model analyses and other food, beverage and water monitoring applications are discussed.